Environmental Studies 3 Week 6
Environmental Studies 3 Week 6
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This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Helen Notetaker on Tuesday May 13, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.
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Date Created: 05/13/14
ENV S 3 050614 European America Today39s IDs New Spain Found gold and silver through slave labor established colonies and conquered huge populations with small armies 1500s 1600s Encomienda system 0 Worked better in big villages 0 System of slave labor 0 Conquering Spaniards were rewarded encomiendas groups of slaves for their bravery in defeating natives I System they legitimized Tribute 0 The encomiendas tribute was labor Protection 0 In return they received protection Mission system 0 Related to Roman Catholicism 0 Brought priest from various denominations to the New World to convert people to Christianity 0 To occupy the Spanish frontier Proselytizing 0 Preaching converting Indians to Christianity 0 Also to make the Indians Spanish citizens I Didn39t matter what your ethnicity was as long as you did Spanish things Iesuits Dominicans Franciscans o All participated in the mission system 0 Came to America and established missions California 0 The last place to get colonized by the Spanish mission system Sacred Expedition 0 Last move to take control of California 0 1760s 1790s o Converted Californian Indians including Chumash Transatlantic o Transference through this region Transference 0 Of guns germs and steel English Colonies Late 1500s going into 1600s English would rise as the primary power over the Spanish becomes a quintessential society of guns germs and steel Mercantilism o Companies took raw materials and sent them to England then back to the colonies and around the world to be sold Roanoke o First attempt to colonize was a failure o Present day coast of North Carolina o Lost Colony 0 1588 Navidad 0 Spanish also had a bad experience trying to colonize o Found no one alive when they went back o Had founded a colony next to cannibals Iamestown Virginia 0 English tried again 1607 o Focused on making money o Didn39t adjust to the environment Starving time o 16081609 were starving times for Iamestown colony o Left to eating rats insects and possibly esh o But in 1610 they found a cash crop tobacco which got the English started in the Americas Pilgrims o 1620 they came to Plymouth in Massachusetts o Terrible first year o More focused on religion than money Puritans o 1630 To get away from the church of England from prosecution Called the area New England Cared less about Indians settled to establish doctrinal settlements Shift from Roman Catholicism Spanish into Protestantism Brought in English technology I Fur industry fishing lumbering etc o Wanted to control everything including economic activities I Attracted entrepreneurs to come to New England I Less religious control starting 1650s City on a hill o Iohn Winthrop o Meaning that their city should be an example of the world to see o Massachusetts Bay New England o Where Puritans settled Middle Atlantic colonies OOOOO New York City 0 Wide open city Philadelphia 0 Another city that ourished with growing economy Southern colonies 0 Tobacco became a huge cash crop I Created problem with labor Indentured servants 0 People who signed contracts in England to work off the 7 year contract 0 Turned out to be unreliable African slave trade 0 Turned to African slave trade 0 Mostly in southern English colonies Tobacco rice indigo 0 Big crops that they needed labor for Cash crop farming o Transforms this area New France Black Robe 1991 talks about their attempts to colonize shows the differences between Spanish English and French Overview of Second Half Colonies of capitalism The political economists Global economic theory Responses to industrialization Environmental impact of global warfare Modern capitalism and the role of government Externalities and capitalism Today39s Music Goldberg Variations by Iohann Sebastian Bach 16851750 Played by Glenn Gould ENV S 3 050814 England Laboratory of the Early Industrial World Today39s IDs The British Isles History of emergence of England British Isles as first modern industrialized power in the world 43 AD is the year that the Romans came to the British Isles and pacified the Celts things that happened on the wake of Domesday showed that England was on the way to representative government Celts Druids 0 First people at the British Isles were the Celts I Had advanced culture had guns steel and horses I Had priests and loyalty I Priests who were the highest level were called Druids Worked well with the incoming Romans Developed trading centers with the Romans 0 London was formed as a trading center for Rome With the Romans there was transference from Mediterranean Hadrian39s Wall 0 Hadrian was a Roman emperor o Built a wall in 130s AD to keep the Barbarians in the North away from the South the Scotts Angles Saxons o Crossed the English Channel 400 AD o Warlike people came to unsettled parts of England 0 Good farmers 0 England was a well fed part of Europe rich land I 19 miles of water between it and the continent of Europe Norman Conquest o Vikings 0 Normans were militarily more powerful Duke William 0 1066 AD Duke William who was a Norman took his man crossed the Channel defeated King Harold and won the Battle of Hastings King Harold o Anglo Saxon King Battle of Hastings 0 Normans win William the Conqueror o Duke William changes his name and becomes known as William the Conqueror Domesday Book O C O O 0 Census launched in 1080s AD by William the Conqueror I Gave 13000 accounts Had his people go out to the farms and take down everything that was in it Southern counties of England into account Allowed William to legitimize his control of England Advanced the demography of England I Big step forward environmentally Done for the purpose of paying taxes Magna Carta O O O O O 1215 Magna Carta was issued Originally to protect the power of the nobility But in 1216 the King died and decided to included rights for the non royalty Shifted power from absolute monarchy to people Begins to move into an environmentally manipulative culture Industrial Revolution Scholarship of the last few decades of the Industrial Revolution which suggested that the revolutionary nature was overstated it was a long slow process it fits Diamond39s autocatalytic process Domesday Book had to happen the 19 miles of water etc British were the major naval power in the world led them to establish mercantile colonies Triangular Trade redistribution of goods everywhere from England Enlightenment o Educated mass of people who believed that everything can be solved by reason 0 Emerges in the1600s moves more and more toward secularism 0 Industrial Revolution was a product of the Enlightenment Mercantilism 0 England went out and found colonies populated the colonies colonies had raw materials British would go get the raw materials reprocess them and sell them back to the colonies Capitalism 0 Was moving towards a more modern system capitalism 0 System that promoted trade with other countries colonies I Used their economic power to establish this 0 Most of the means of production were privately owned Mass production mass consumption 0 Factories were created for profit 0 Manufacturer class of Britain really emerged O I Began to produce mass finished goods I Moves the agrarian England to industrial England Brought farmers to work in factories in the city They were no longer self sufficient Had to use their wages to buy food clothing and shelter IR created a market of mass production and mass consumption people needed things because they weren39t producing them on their own anymore Applied technology steam 0 Power looms were first powered by water 0 Water power was replaced by steam power 0 Steam technology from Greeks Iames Watt Robert Fulton Eli Whitney o Iames Watt I Developed steam technology I Mid 1700s England was way ahead of the curve in power technology 0 Robert Fulton I American New Yorker went to England to see what they were doing brings back technology I Steam engine inside a boat I 1807 created a power boat 0 Eli Whitney I New Yorker I Used steam engine to turn a drill Developed firearms Ri es guns etc Pig iron 0 Best metal at the time harder than iron 0 Less powerful than steel 0 What Whitney made gun barrels out of Early externalities 0 England still controlled American colonies 0 Sun never sets in England 0 Externalities industrial activity that the market place doesn39t capture I Negative externalities in England pollution Bad air quality Smithian Revolution Mostly involved the work of Adam Smith 17231790 Smith was a professor of the science of economics Smithians were the first to look at what the world was doing Smith has followers who were of the same mind that the market would solve all problems it was like a religion Political economy 0 Combining the idea of politics with global economic activity 0 Primary interest of Smith An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 1776 0 Shortened to Wealth of Nations Resource allocation 0 Asks how are resources allocated properly I Answer is markets Market capitalism 0 Money and well trained people make the system work Government role 0 Minimal government role 0 Proper role of government is to have courts jurisprudence and the police force internal security and national defense 0 Government has no role in the market economy I If it gets involved it messes up the signals of supply and demand Free market 0 Government intervention will mess up signals in the free market Laissez faire 0 French word meaning hands off leave alone Invisible Hand 0 Of the markets do the work not the government 0 Will allocate resources properly Classical economic theory 0 Had no concept of scarcity 0 Price system market allocation etc Mainstream economists o What they39re called today 0 Doesn39t support UN Neo Smithians 0 Modern followers of Smithians Free trade 0 Will allow the world to prosper 0 Most countries during his time had tariffs Smith said we should get rid of tariffs Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Paper Guidelines Due May 27th Overall 2nd Half Themes 0 How did we get where we are today 0 Does capitalism always solve its problems Look at issues and pick the best and worst issue Today39s Music Animals by Pink Floyd 1977 in the album Dogs Pigs and Sheep
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