General Psychology (September 1st - September 4th)
General Psychology (September 1st - September 4th) PSYC 1560 - 07
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Taylor on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1560 - 07 at Youngstown State University taught by Karen Giorgetti in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Youngstown State University.
Reviews for General Psychology (September 1st - September 4th)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/04/15
General Psychology September 1st September 4th The Ethics of Research cont There is the of informing participants about the nature of procedures before their participation in the experiment 0 All experiments andor studies must be reviewed by an independent panel before being conducted 0 You don39t have to tell participants everything just everything they need to know before they decide to participate A document signed by participants tells you all bene ts risks etc before participation and parents must be involved in the choice of a child to participate in a study Should Animals Be Used in Research Procedures that subject animals to distress are permitted 0 Provides greater experimental control over nonhumans There are higher standards for animals in experiments than humans This is because the animal can39t give consent and has no choice Threats to Experimental Validity o Experimenter Expectations o Researcher in uences the results in order to portray a certain outcome 0 Participant Expectations 0 Participant in uences the results in order to portray a certain outcome Fake treatment Can have an effect especially if participant believes that what they are getting will have an effect co o No one knows who is getting the placebo and who is getting the real treatment Neither researcher nor the participants know what group the treatment is being given to Chapter 2 m o The study of physical and chemical changes involved in behavior and mental processes All behavior and mental processes are based on biology genetics neuroscience etc 0 But those processes are also in uenced by the environment What is Neuroscience 6 60 Interdisciplinary eld studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes The Structure of the Neuron 6 60 Nerve cells the basic elements of the nervous system Distinctive features 0 Ability to communicate amp transmission of communication Cluster of bers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons Part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons Small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons Protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon Messages that are sent through neurons are always all or nothing 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 6 60 When a neuron is off it is in a resting state Neurons have a negative electrical charge When the neuron is ring it is positive When a neuron res the negative charge goes out and positive charge comes in When it reaches the end to release the chemical it goes back to its resting state 6 60 6 60 Speed at which an action potential travels This is determined by 0 The neuron itself length thickness of insulation some are just simply faster or slower etc o Intensity of the stimulus what kind of message is coming in Specialized neurons that re Helps in explaining how and why humans have the capacity to understand others39 intentions 6 60 Where Neurons Meet Neurons do NOT touch 0 The space between neurons Chemical message released by the terminal buttons and they must jump over the synapse to reach the next neuron Not every neuron is capable of receiving the chemical message carried by a neurotransmitter Neurons receive multiple messages simultaneously Types of chemicals delivered by neurotransmitters o Excitatory Message Excites the neuron causing it to re 0 Inhibitory Message Prevents the neuron from ring Neurotransmitters remaining a the site of the synapse lead to 0 Receiving neurons in a continual chemical bath 0 Producing constant stimulation or constant inhibition of the receiving neurons 0 Process where the neurons retrieve chemicals that were not received by the next neuron After the chemicals are received the neuron cleans up whatever is left and uses it later O 60 The Nervous Svstem 6 CNS 0 Part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord o 0 Controls re exes transmits messages from brain to body 0 Automatic involuntary response inching gag re ex blinking etc Seen in infants are the rooting re ex grasp re ex and Babinski re ex Kinds of neurons involved in re exes o Sensory Afferent Neurons Your senses guide these information coming in is from your senses 0 Motor Efferent Neurons Tells your body how to move Branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body 0 Includes 0 Somatic System In charge of voluntary movement and communication to and from sense organs 0 Autonomic System In charge of involuntary movements heart lungs etc Can respond to sensory input ex heart and breathing rate increase during exercise Activatino the Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous Svstem The Sympathetic Division Fight or ight is found here Stressful situations cause it leading to heart rate increase adrenaline release blood pressure increase pupil dilation to take in more light sweating etc Every other system hunger bowel movement etc shuts down Considered a strong evolutionary adaptation so all focus is on the stressor Parasympathetic Division Once the stress has passed this calms the body down to the normal resting state Evolutionary Foundations of the Nervous System 6 60 Finds behaviors that are a result of genetic inheritance and what has adapted for survival oz Behavioral genetics Looks at genetics and how they effect behavior The Endocrine Svstem 6 60 Chemical communication communicates differently than the neurons and releases Regulate growth and functioning quotMaster Glandquot Major component of the endocrine system as it regulates growth AND other glands The Brain 6 60 6 60 Studvino the Brain39s Structure and Functions 6 60 Looking at electric activity that occurs in the brain measured by using electrodes 6 60 Uses magnetic elds to take a 3D image of the brain and it looks at how different parts of your brain function activity levels in the brain 6 60 Shows the biochemical activity in the brain at any given moment Uses magnetic elds to stimulate the brain and momentarily interrupt the activity 6 60 The Central Core 6 60 Controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates Medulla Essential automatic bodily functions 6 60 Pons Transmitter for motor information involved with movement as well as waking sleeping and dreaming Cerebellum Responsible for coordinating balance and muscle movement Reticular Formation Responsible for screening incoming information and controlling arousal levels Thalamus Hub where all information meets and the thalamus decides where it goes from there Hypothalamus Maintains homeostatis produces and regulates vital behaviors to maintain a quotnormalquot or typical state temperature blood pressure heart rate etc The Limbic System 6 0 Part of the brain that controls eating aggression and reproduction emotions behavior regulation and memory Otherwise referred to as the quotAnimal Brainquot 0 Includes 0 Amygdala Connected to saved memories and gives ability to recall and feel memories 0 Hippocampus Ability to learn and remember This is responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain o Frontal Front of the brain Includes the motor cortex right between frontal and parietal lobes controls voluntary movement and Broca39s area lower frontal lobe that controls speech production Frontal lobe itself receives and coordinates messages from other lobes motor control speech production and higher functions Parietal Top back of the brain Responsible for interpreting bodily sensations anything you feel Includes somatosensory cortex part of parietal lobe receiving sensory messages PreFrontal Cortex Located right before the frontal lobe and is the last to develop Responsible for critical thinking planning etc 0 Temporal Located above ears and is responsible for hearing Includes Wernicke39s area responsible for language comprehension Has some memory and emotion control Occipital Very back of the brain at the base of head Responsible for vision and visual perception Neuroolasticitv of the Brain 0 0 Changes in the brain that occur throughout lifespan 6 60 0 Creation of new neurons which happens as you learn new things so neurons can develop to do new things Specialization of the Hemispheres 6 60 o The brain has two symmetrical halves left and right Dominance of certain traits as related to the side of the brain with which they are controlled 6 60 The SplitBrain Explorino the Two Hemi5pheres ln splitbrain patients the corpus callosum is surgically cut Often times this is done as a last resort for controlling uncontrollable seizures
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'