Ecology and Human Physiology notes
Ecology and Human Physiology notes BIOL 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by TylerElliot on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Ohio University taught by Kim Thompson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Environmental Science at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Ecology and Human Physiology 83115 9415 151 What is Ecology o Ecology is a Branch of Biology 0 Involves the study of organisms in relations to their environments Involves the abundance and distribution of animals and plants Not a social cause Not the same as environment Not a natural history IS science Ecologists need at least a basic understanding of nearly every other branch of science 0 Ecology Grew from Natural History 0 The interest in organisms and their surroundings is as old as humanity but the history only encompasses the 20th century 0 In the 1300s opportunities to study natural history flourished among Europeans I Helped launch Linnaeus and Darwin s life work 0 4 Main Stems of Modern Ecology I Biogeography I Environmental physiology I Limnology I Behavioral ecology Field of ecology nearly split in two over how to spell it ecology or oecology Three Main Branches of Today s Ecology I Population Ecology Dynamic changes in species I Systems Ecology Dynamics of complex communities I Applied Ecology Predicts the outcomes and how to mitigate human activities OOOOOO 152 How do Ecologists Study Populations 0 One of Ecology s Major Tasks o 1798 Thomas Malthus observed that humanity has an innate and almost unlimited ability to procreate but a limited ability to produce food I Malthus believed that if human population growth were left unchecked the result would be pestilence war and famine 0 20th Century started studies of insects farm animals and game animals 0 Recently ecologists have begun to study population dynamics in plants 0 Population is Determined by Natality Mortality Immigration and Emigration o Natality birth rate 0 Mortality death rate I These two together determine the growth rate 0 Immigration brings new individuals into a population o Emigration removes individuals from a population 0 Population Characteristics 0 Absolute number All individuals in the population Density Number of individuals per unit area Range Area where the species lives and seeks food Habitat Where an individual lives AgeSpecific Mortality Rates Each age class is a different population I Helps construct life tables 0000 153 How Do Populations Grow 0 Some Populations Grow Exponentially o lntrinsic factors I Biotic potential the population s ability to reproduce o Extrinsic factors I Environmental resistance factors that limit growth 0 Population Equations I Growth Rate r birthrate deathrate immigration emigration I Exponential Equation dNdt rN o The larger the population the faster it grows o Carrying capacity the number of individuals the environment can support 0 The growth of most populations follows an Sshaped curve 0 A Variety of Factors Limit Population Growth 0 Extrinsic DensityDependent Factors I Space I Intensity of predation I Disease 0 lntrinsic DensityDependent Factors I Stress I Ability to reproduce o DensityIndependent Factors I Temperatures 0 Age Structure Graphs Allow Predictions about Population Growth 0 Uses information about age classes to create a life table 0 Life table is used to create an age structure graph 0 Predictions assume no significant immigrations or emigrations and constant birth and death rates 0 Populations Differ in Longevity and Survivorship Patterns 0 Physiological longevity Life span I Differs species to species 0 Ecological longevity age an individual is expected to live in a given environment I Takes into account factors of predators disease accidents and physical conditions 154 How Do Populations Interact o Populations are Harmed When They Compete o 1960 Garret Hardin discovered the Competitive Exclusion Principle that stated 2 species can t coexist while using the same limiting resources 0 Experiments to attempt to disprove this I 1940 s Hawaii Department of Agriculture studied insect parasites I 1950 s Joseph Connell studied shallow water species I 1950 s Robert Macarthur studied warblers 0 Resource partitioning Use of scarce resources in a given environment by different species at different times places or ways 0 As populations grow interactions between competitors intensify o Predator Prey Interactions o WinLose situation 0 When predators are removed from an area prey populations increase 0 When prey numbers are high predators respond with increased reproduction decreased mortality and increased immigration 0 Two basic categories I Plant herbivore interactions I Herbivore carnivore interactions 0 Some Populations Form Intimate Associations Symbiosis is an arrangement where 2 or more organisms live closely together Parasitism One species benefits at the expense of another Commensalism One species benefits while the other is unaffected Mutualism Both species benefit I Obligatory mutualism both species are dependent on each other I Facultative mutualism both species benefit when they are together but are capable of living independently 0000 125 How Does the Body Fight Disease o Reservoirs of Infection 0 Human while sick or as carriers 0 Animal Wild or domestic I Zoonosis disease in an animal that can be transmitted to a human 0 Environmental Soil and water 0 Transmission of Disease 0 Direct I Physical contact with host I Droplets spread at close range I Contact with contaminated plants water or soil 0 Indirect I Vehicles Nonliving objects I Suspended airborne particles I Animal vectors The Immune System Immunity is the ability of the body to protect itself from diseasecausing entities Cells of the immune system also patrol the body for cells that are damaged diseased or deteriorated Cells can recognize and remove abnormal cells that can result in genetic mutations Pathogens are diseasecausing microbes usually bacteria and viruses The human body has several barriers against invaders and if the invader does get in the immune system can fight it off Barriers that Help Prevent Infection 0 00000 1st line of defense Undamaged skin Stomach acid Cilia Mucus Enzymes in tears and saliva Lymphoid Tissues O 0 Part of immune system Found in all parts of the body including I Red bone marrow I Thymus gland I Lymph nodes I Spleen NonSpecific Responses 0 O 0 2nd line of defense Do not recognize invader from a previous attack Phagocytes Eating Cells I Neutrophils in blood I Macrophages in tissue Phagocytosis Phagocytes recognize invaders and ingest them Phagocytes also use chemical attractants called cytokines to attract more immune cells to an infected area I Often forms pus I Response can cause inflammation Specific Responses 0 O 0 3rd line of defense Targeted to a recognized invader Carried out by lymphocytes I Can be told apart from one another by proteins in their cell membranes called antibodies I Antibodies recognize foreign material called antigens o Clonal Selection Theory Antigens don t instruct lymphocytes to make specific antibodies instead existing lymphocytes with fully formed antibodies are selected to grow when they encounter a complimentary antigen I This is how vaccines work They introduce a small sample of the antigen to your body so that it will develop antibodies for when a larger sample enters
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