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PSYCH 108 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 47 Top Down Processing and Visual Object Recognition Change Blindness Detecting the difference between two scenes Top down processing encourages us to assume that the basic meaning of the scene will remain stable Important changes identified more quickly Inattentional Blindness When something very obvious appears yet you do not notice Overactive TopDown Processing The visual system is fairly accurate in creating the gist or general interpretation of a scene Template Theories of Pattern Recognition Template theories a miniature cope or template of each known pattern is stored in long term memory Problems 0 Not adaptable 0 Impose large storage requirements Feature theories patterns consist of a set of specific features or attributes 0 Advantages elementary features can combine to form multiple objects 0 Problems context effects in perception Depth Perception A Further illustration of top down processing use experience and possibly innate knowledge to infer depth from multiple cues Monocular Depth Cues Linear perspectives Parallel lines appear to converge as they recede into the distance Aerial Perspective The effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance Texture Gradient The distortion in size which closer objects have compared to objects farther away Interposition Overlapped objects appear farther away Shadows and shading With a known light source shading and shadows can inform which object is closer to the light source Familiar size Knowledge of the size of familiar objects used to gauge depth Motion parallax The apparent motion of two stationary targets at different distances due to a change in observer position Closer target appear to move more quickly and in reverse direction to the observer39s movement Further target appears to move slowly in the same direction Binocular Depth Cues Binocular disparity different images to each eye as a function of object distance Binocular convergence Rotation of eyes depends on object distance Large difference in rotation close Small difference far Illusions Reveal constraints biases on perception Constraints are perceptual assumptions that we make Usually correct but occasionally wrong When wrong illusion results 0 Illusions come from helpful processes Without constraints no perception at all Our perceptual system is biased to emphasize important aspects The Ames Room Linear Perspective MuellerLyer Illusion 9 learned illusion 9 exposure to corners Shapard Illusion 9 depth perception Illusions related to lateral inhibition Neighboring neurons inhibit each other Brightness activates neurons more than darkness Bright next to dark seems particularly bright extreme contrast Dark next to bright seems particularly dark Silhouettes show that edges are sufficient for object recognition Edge show the regions of change in an image Illusions related to contract detection We are more sensitive to change and relative values than absolute values 0 We represent objects relative to the other nearby objects 0 We adapt to one object and other objects are evaluated with respect to that object Illusions related to color constancy Color constancy perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions Illusions related to shape constancy Regardless of changes to an object39s orientation the shape of the object is perceived the same Importance of bottomup processes Iames Gibson39s Ecological approach to visual perception o Emphasis on how features of environment determine perception 0 Top down theories ignore motion 0 Most illusions occur in static He coined the term Invariances aspects of the visual array that do not change 0 Optical ow patterns information seems to expand outward from the point towards which one is moving 0 The ability to stay on course involves keep the unchanging invariant center of the optical ow pattern centered on the desired destination 0 Motion invariances allow detection of human motion point light displays of people I Recognizes walking and running with 10 lights gender weight and mood Illusions related to top down processing in audition Phonemic restoration 0 Our brain fills in the gap of a sound even if it is not there 0 Expectancy effect once you expect the noise top down processes will make it seem like you can actually hear it McGurkeffect 0 Procedure I See GA I Hear BA I Experience DA 0 Top down processes integrate perceptual and auditory cues leading to the experience of compromise phoneme Big picture conclusion on perception We are not really experiencing reality Our brain uses various sophisticated inference processes to take its best guess of reality We are experiencing our brains simulation of reality Everything we experience is a construction of our mind Our brain creates its own Matrix 49 Attention and Consciousness Limits of attention Trying to attend to everything at once is more than the cognitive processes can handle attention concentration of mental activity Every one knows what attention is It is the taking possession by the mind in a clear and vivid form of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought Focalization concentration of consciousness are of its essence It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal with others James 1890 p 403 Several Kinds of Attention Processes Divided Attention o divided attention tasks trying to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages respond appropriately to each message speed and accuracy suffer Several Kinds of Attention Processes Divided Attention Multitasking Walking and talking Reading and IM People may believe that they can multitask but the research does not support this illusion 0 People perform faster and more accurately if they work on one task at a time Several Kinds of Attention Processes Divided Attention 0 driving studies 0 reaction times during driving are 20 slower than without the cell phone Dichotic Listening One message presented to left ear and a different message presented to nghtear Shadow one of the messages People notice very little about the unattended message Dichotic Listening What is missed from unattended channel Same message different times gtIlt changed language What is maintained Physical characteristics Tone of Voice Very important meanings Cocktail Party phenomena Hear name in unattended channel Switching meaning from one channel to the other Broadbent s Filter Theory Broadbent39s Filter theory early selective lter allows people to attend to one channel based on physical characteristics Problems with Broadbent s Theory Recall across ears can be organized automatically Problems Moray Cocktail party phenomenon Treisman changed message subjects followed meaning in the unattended channel Treisman s Filter amplitude theory Filter turns down the volume on unattended channel D assumes Preattentive analysis much more complex Filter is not all or none Evidence o Looked at the duration that subjects would notice that the two channels Matched If attended channel came first 4 seconds If attended channel came second only 15 seconds Deutsch 8 Deutsch Late selection theory All incoming stimuli are processed however quickly forget one channel Evidence People show evidence of processing the semantic content of the unattended channel Disambiguation from unattended ear When asked to report Words from attended ear listener tends to Write fare when Taxi presented but fair when Circus is presented Unattended information is not reported but has an in uence based on its meaning A Hybrid Perceptual Load Theory Everyone has limited attentional capacity The amount of attentional capacity allocated to the main task depends on its perceptual load the number of units in the display and the nature of processing required for each unit Lavie amp Tsal 1994 p 185 Early selection occurs when load is high late selection dominates when load is low Visual Search find a target in a visual display with numerous distractors Variables Influencing Visual Search The isoatedfeaturecombinedfeature effect Variables Influencing Visual Search The isolated featurecombinedfeature e ect If the target differed with respect to a simple feature such as color observers could quickly detect the target When the irrelevant items force you to search for a combination of features both blue and X Visual search takes longer Variables Influencing Visual Search The feature present0 eature absent e ect People can typically locate a feature that is present more quickly than a feature that is absent Automaticity Characteristics of automaticity Occurs Without intention Stroop demonstration B does not reveal itself to conscious process Consumes no conscious resources Characteristics of control or conscious processes o Requires intention o Conscious o Consumes resources The Stroop Effect Name the colors in the rectangular patches below Measure the amount of time it takes to go through this list ve times Record the time The Stroop Effect Say out loud the names of the ink colors ignoring the meaning of the words Measure the amount of time it takes to go through this list ve times Record that time Consciousness People have relatively complete access to some thought processes but only limited access to other thought processes Three Levels of Consciousness Nonconscious 0 Information that is entirely outside of awareness Experiential conscious o The contents of consciousness Meta awareness o Ones explicit understanding of their conscious experience Illustrated by the Example of Mindwandering While Reading Nonconscious o The activation of associates of read Words Experiential conscious o What one is daydreaming about Meta conscious o The recognition that one has been daydreaming instead of reading Unconscious processing Subliminal perception 0 Semantic priming Subliminal Perception Was word present is at chance but Which word is related is better than chance Results are contrary to traditional information processing stages of first sensory then semantic Early priming based on meaning Unconscious priming Automatic priming from one object to the next Priming Presentation of a priming object just before another object leads to facilitated processing of the second object if they are related Consciousness Current contents of thought Thought Suppression Thought suppression the attempt to eliminate thoughts ideas and images related to an undesirable stimulus D Do not think about a white bea