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Blue Planet Introduction to Oceanography

by: Danny Wiegand III

Blue Planet Introduction to Oceanography E&S SCI 15

Danny Wiegand III
GPA 3.85

E. Schauble

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E. Schauble
Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danny Wiegand III on Friday September 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to E&S SCI 15 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by E. Schauble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/178012/e-s-sci-15-university-of-california-los-angeles in Earth And Space Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 09/04/15
Introduction to Oceanography Lecture 19 Breaking waves tsunami amp tides Interference amp breaking of reflected waves Laguna Beach Photo by Andrew Castellano y e A sday session 2nd Midterm November 14 Friday Teahupoo Tahiti Why Do Waves Break at the Shore Waves much 12371 om Surf zu Wiveswith nun v a rF aunt wavJength av33nmll Ehmr nsr breakers mm l ias Valucllv dacreas 39 wave height mumquot sag s 125L12 s 2 31g 2 Courtesy of David Sandwell Why Do Waves Break at the Shore waves much L mmm burl zone uwauelenglh shormnsy Ijbveakers I mml V ee e w ae a Wan25 with conslanl wavele Hath w FEEFEEBaEE wave helgm increases DEW 39 12 Immwm Deep water to shallow water transition Wave Shoa ng Analogy Try sprinting from asphalt into mud 39 quot39 i gay You will tend to fall over 4 39 3 quot Why Do Waves Break at the Shore Horizontal Velocity at Crest 10 cm Wave Time 0000 Animation by R Leighton and G B Smith Naval Research Laboratory 0 1 9 E O G V O H LO t O I V G 4 1 3 8 Tsunami Vi tsu port harbor 39 From Japanese namiuwave httpAMnWJffc orgkanji nameshtm English synonym Tidal wave even though they are NOT caused by tides confusion resulting from long period Origin Seismic sea waves driven by earthquakes volcanic eruptions or underwater landslides Tsunami Location November 14 19 Mindoro Island Maximum wave 7 m Falalrlies 9 Julisca in Maximum Fatalities 1 Sepiemuer 2 1992 Nicaragua January 1 1996 Sulxwasi Islmi Maximum wave 14 m I Families 9 Maxlmum wave 10 m Fatalliles I70 February 21 1996 Norm can nl Pam Elximum wave 5 m Falalillesl 12 Maximum wave 14 rn Falaliies 235 Dec 26 2004 Banda A cell 2004 Thomson lt BrooksCole Maximum Wave 12 m Fatalities gt 100000 Most occur along Ring of Fire Why 7 Banda Ac eh Animations from Miho Aoki MFA an anist at UA Fairbanks httpMafdenZ phys uafedu645fallZ003web direlenasuleimani Tsunami crossing the Bay of Bengal The 7 Q httpesucsceduward Tsunami in the open ocean Created by a large earthquake and traveling 100 s of kmhr the tsunami was almost too small to notice in the open ocean TOPEXPoseidon satellite passed over the Indian Ocean 2 hours after the earthquake TOPEXPoseidon and Tsunami Indian Ocean tsunami 2004 Tsunami 26122004 7 TOPEX IGDR 100 39 Pass ll P3551quot 0 E15579 Passbi M hquot A 1 Wave height 40 39 39 11 meters i o 39 w A x rt 14 s watt3 t a 0 391 7 70 39 lo V 00 SO i100 0 75 0 S Latitude ZDD 50 gt20 1 D 2 D 2 ID 20 SD 200 htqywwwavisaoceanobs 39 39 nquot 39 o r 39 391 mmmmiiuk tml How does a tsunami cause harm In the open ocean the tsunami was only 1 meter high This is about waist deep The wave period is minutes motion was too slow to feel at sea Tsunami are rarely destructive at sea The Poseidon Adventure notwithstanding Danger comes from runup and breaking of tsunami at shoreline 1 Eur 11 Wave wirr gamma wavale ml 2 i 39 breakers furnn g 7quot T39i U 4 UDQf k xl 39G 2 T Vlagaljasp l 5 Veloclty decreasg 1 wave he Damn HZ wavnlEngth gm mmgasesi Tsunami waves come to shore v Wan9mm r v r WENIr wlm a 5 y u 39 LucquotLquot1quot39 n quot3939quot 539quot LI39I 12ml nkaumle gtlv M vel nmh Warm n5 lmeaquotwrfurn I t ecr T 39 r VJF 39 m t a myx n 3 ft m w x l x u x i in W3 9 3539 xw i V Valoclty decreases wana haighl Manages Wind waves with wavelengths up to 100 meters extend to 50 m 131 have periods of seconds 0 Tsunami have wavelengths gt 100 km always extend to sea oor In shallow water energy becomes concentrated between bottom and surface Wave height increases up to 10X Decreasing wave speed leads to decreasing wavelength further concentrating energy Long period of waves 10 minutes means crest can push inland for a great distance before receding Tsunami waves come to shore Animation from Miho Aoki MFA an artist at UA Fairbanks http den ZphysmafedM645fall2003webdirelenamleimani Tsunami waves come to shore Far from seismic origin rst indication is often drawing out of water Kalutara Beach Sri Lanka httpIzomepagemaC0nzdemarkIszmami The rst wave crest follows several minutes later Tsunami waves come to shore Banda Aceh vis use eduideptitsunamisi2005iV Tsunami waves come to shore Several wavesers may follow C0111p01mding damage I h ImphomepagenzacComdemark fsmiami ls California at Risk YES We live on the ring of fire Pacific Plate Boundary Local risks from offshore faults and landslides near Catalina and the Channel Islands Very large prehistoric landslides off Hawaiian islands other volcanic islands probably generated megatsunami httpcwisuscedudepllsunamis 2005videovideoisocal lml Minimizing Tsunami Damage Tsunami will occur and triggering events are generally not predictable DYNAMIC DEFENSE Seismic networks can warn oftsunamigenerating earthquakes and landslides Seismic waves travel 5 kmsec 18000 kmhr Tsunami travel slower e 1000 kmhr Most damage from Indonesian tsunami came more than 1 hour after the earthquake Buoys can also detect tsunami at sea Warning networks and evacuation plans vital Preventing Tsunami Damage Triggering events are generally not predictable but damage patterns are STATIC DEFENSE Training vulnerable populations to heed warnings Earthquake shaking Anomalous sudden low tides Preserving natural buffers Reefs barriers islands mangrove swamps amp estuaries dilute impact of waves What Else Happens to Nearshore Waves Reflection Reversal in direction due to wave bouncing off a boundary What Else Happens to Nearshore Waves Refraction Bending of wave front due to changing wave speed Beach Shal lower Deeper Fig 3 Waves refract as they approach a smooth beach having gentle slope What Else Happens to Nearshore Waves Refraction l Water here is more than 12 This end wavelength of the wave is deep in shallow so the water so it waves Water here slows down bend to is less become more than 12 parallel to the wavelength shore deep39 Shore 2004 What Else Happens to Near shore Waves REFRACTION What Else Happens to Nearshore Waves REFRACTION OVIe fraction near San Onofre c What Else Happens to Nearshore Waves REFRACTION near Crescent Cit CA Tides Planetwavelength waves Cyclic repeating rise amp fall of sea level Most regular phenomenon in the oceans Daily tidal variation has great effect on life in amp around the ocean 15 EarthMoonSun System EarthSun Distance 150000000 km 25 eccentricitynot a perfectly circular orbit Earth Moon Distance 385000 km Much closerto Earth but much less massive Earth Obliquity 235 degrees Seasons Tides are caused by the gravity of the Moon and Sun Mellon due to Inertia Combined enact Mellon due to gravity h c 2004 Thomson BrooksCole Basic Orbital Mechanics Planetary objects stay in orbit due to exact balance of Gravity and Centrifugal forces at their center of mass Like a weight spun on the end of string Earth39s Orbit animation 16 Ecliptic Piane EarthMoon Distance 384000 km Revolution period of the Moon 273 Days Rotation period of the Moon also 273 Days Synchronous Rotation We always see the same side of the Moon Phases of the Moon New Moon Waxing Crescent 12 Moon First quarter Full Moon Etc 7 daysquarter 17 Phases of the Moon Phases of the Moon 18 Phases of the Moon Phases of the Moon 19 The Big Picture 3 Bulges Moon attacks ocean Earth s motion creates opposlng bulge camblned result moon Centrifugal force pushes a bulge away from moon on the far side ofthe Earth Tl DES TRY TO TRACK THE MOON The Sun s gravity has a similar but smaller effect 12 as strong Relative position of sun and moon determines the size ofthe tide M animation Moon s gravitational force acting on the Earth tugs out a tidal bulge towards Ideal Tides Moon only Trou h 326 about noon 394 island exposed 1888 N h 0613 C rest r 01 613AM quot Island Poke bland Smeelged submerged Crest Kan U Earth lurns eastward Gravity bulge inertia bulge 0000 midnight hi h Island g and dry e 2004 Thomson A BrooksCole 0 20 Different Locations Different Tides Island partly submerged lower high tide W North Island submerged Moon Pole higher high tide I g Island exposed low tide Earth turns eastward gt Equator Why is the moon s effect on the tide greater than the sun s Gravity balances Centrifugal at Earth s center of mass Elsewhere they don t cancel TIDE GENERATING FORCE GM F 0c tzdes R3 Earth Moon Moon Tide generating force falls off faster with radius than gravity 21 Tidal Forces Sun vs Moon Difference in Distance Rsun 387 Rmoon Difference in Mass Msun 30000000 Mmoon Equilibrium Theory of the Tides EarthSun Tide W Why Sun is much more massive Msun 3x107 Mmoon M Sun is much My Rsun 400 Rmoon 1 7 E3x107x 047 GM3 Mm R535 4003 R 22 Neap and Spring Tides Sun and moon line up pull tides in the same direction SPRING TIDE Strongest Tides Twice per month Which phases of the moon Sun and moon at right angles pull tides in different directions NEAP TIDES Weak Tides Also twice per month in between Spring Tides Spring Tides moon 3 Spring tides 2004 Thomson BrooksCole When Solar Lunar tides constructively interfere ie are in phase amp add together Largest tidal range twice a month Full moon amp new moon 23 Nea Tides IFSI quarter moon Lunar tide Third quarter moon Neap tides L97 2004 Thomson BrooksCole When Solar Lunar tides destructivelv interfere ie subtract from each other Smallest tidal range 1st and 3rd quarter moons Effect of Sun amp Moon Together Spring Tides amp Neap Tides Tides Neap Spring Neap Spring Moon phases I Port Adelaide Australia Water level m Neap Spring Neap Spring Pakhoi China Water level m Days a VARIATIONS IN TlDAL RANGE


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