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Date Created: 05/13/14
PSYCH 108 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 414 Video Do We Have Free Will With Morgan Freeman 416 Thought Suppression Rebound Effect 0 Initial suppression of specific thoughts can produce a rebound effect after stop trying to keep it out of mind Consciousness is routinely filled with thoughts that we were previously trying to keep out of it Meta Awareness Dissociations between experience and metaawareness Meta awareness explicit knowledge of contents of thought Translation Dissociations o Meta awareness misrepresents the contents of experience I Occur when in the process or re ection individuals embellish distort or neglect aspects of their experience I Shout I39m not angry Temporal dissociations 0 Experience in the absence of metaawareness I Occur when individuals temporarily fail to take stock of their experience I Example mind wandering while reading Motivation as a source of translation dissociations Motivated avoidance of experience o Repressors low anxiety high defensive I Report less anxiety to stressful situations I Show increased stress response on non self report measures Heartbeat facial expressions suggest not just a presentational o Homophobics I Homophobics show greater arousal response to depictions of male intercourse Problem How does someone manage to feel sexually turned off when his or her body is exhibiting a strong positive arousal Resolution arousal colors conscious experience but meta consciousness interprets it in a way that is not threatening Analyzing reasons as a source translation dissociations of metaawareness Analyzing reasons 0 When individuals analyze why they feel the way they do about an attitude object it disrupts their ability to appraise it I Reduced correlation with expert judgments I Reduced post choice satisfaction Analyzing reasons may cause people to temporarily lose touch with their feelings Temporal dissociations of Metaawareness Individuals are only intermittently aware of their own experience Examples 0 Mind wandering o Unwanted thoughts Mind Wandering What is mind wandering 0 Mental departures from the here in now in which individuals attention is directed away from the task at hand I Driving miss the exit I Reading mind elsewhere while reading Experience sampling estimates suggest that approximately 25 of waking hours is spent mind wandering Potentially extremely costly Up until recently minimally studied 0 Entirely internal state with few obvious exogenous markers 0 Relies on self reports Mindwandering and metaawareness Probecaught selfcaught methodology Probe caught episodes 0 Predictive of comprehension 0 Increased by I Alcohol I Craving Self caught episodes 0 Generally not predictive of comprehension o Decreased by I Alcohol I Craving 0 Increased by thinking about self 0 Associated with verbal mind wandering contents Mind Wandering and Reading Participants given a definition of mind wandering Participants read 5 chapters of War and Peace presented on a computer screen Self caught mind wandering w metaawareness Participants reported when they caught themselves mind wandering Probecaught Mind wandering wout metaawareness Participants probed every 24 minutes regarding whether they were mind Wandering Final Comprehension test Relationship between comprehension and mind wandering Correlations between comprehension and percentage of probe catch ratio 0 R 51 Correlation between comprehension and Self caught zone outs 0 R 06 Conclusions from mind wandering reading paradigm People regularly report mind wandering while reading Mind wandering is associated with substantial performance cost 0 Probe caught mind wandering correlated with comprehension failures People regularly lack meta awareness of mind wandering 0 Over 13 of time caught mind wandering before they noticed it themselves Meta awareness modulates impact 0 Self caught mind wandering not correlated with comprehension performance Can we knock out meta awareness of mind wandering Basic premise Self caught mind Wandering episodes have reached meta awareness Probe caught mind Wandering episodes have not reached meta awareness Prediction Manipulation that reduces meta awareness should alter ratio of self caught to probe caught mind wandering Approach Examine effect of alcohol on self and probe caught mind Wandering reports Alcohol Reduces self awareness Hull Should increase proportion of mind wandering that go undetected Ie increase probe caught mind wandering but not self caught Do people also fail to notice unwanted thoughts Participants were asked to recall a past romantic relationship that had ended Were then instructed to try not to think about the person for the remainder of the experiment Sample slide Probe caught unwanted thoughts People are routinely having unwanted thoughts that they haven39t noticed that they39re having Relationship between form of catching nature of the romantic relationship Correlation between reports of unwanted thoughts and degree to which participant wishes they were still with their ex partner Conclusions from unwanted thought study People regularly fail to notice unwanted thought Unnoticed unwanted thoughts are especially disruptive to reading comprehension Individuals may be motivated to avoid noticing thoughts 0 Provides an alternative way of thinking about repression 0 Not that thought don39t reach consciousness but rather that they don39t reach meta consciousness Big picture on attention and consciousness Fridge light 0 Always seems like it is on o Illusion because we tend not to see it when it is off Consciousness similar 0 Seems as if it provides us with a complete representation of perception I But remember the chicken bits 0 Seems as if we always know what is going on in our minds I But remember mind wandering while reading Consciousness is much spottier than it seems Sensory and Working Memory The Modal Model Resembled the stages ofa computer D Working memory RAM long term memory Hard Drive Sensory large capacity same modality as experience D Very fast decay Sh0rt term D limited capacity D acoustic recoding D rehearsal maintains information Probabilistic transfer to ltm The longer in stm the more likely it is to be transferred D seconds delay L0ng termmem0ry D unlimited capacity D semantic coding D Very little decay Span of Apprehension How much could a person see in a brief instant o Whipple I Assessed memory for brie y ashed letter arrays Perfect up to 45 letters Persisted for some time Could rarely report more than 4 letters I Con icted with experience Seemed to see them all brie y Sperling Partial Report Paradigm Brie y presented array Brief delay Auditorially cued row 0 High top row 0 Medium middle row o Low bottom row Report 0 Partial report I ust the letters on the cued row 0 Full report I All the letters Findings 0 Amount of information I 4 letters using full report I 9 letters using partial report 0 Decay rate I Decayed from 94 letters in 1 second Suggest brief detailed sensory memory
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