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Date Created: 05/13/14
PSYCH 108 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 421 Dillolo Missing Dot Technique Purely perceptual not verbally mediated Present 2425 dots 0 Two phases I 12 dots I 12 dots Vary the duration of the first stimulus o Counter intuitive result I The longer the initial stimulus is presented the less successful people are at seeing the missing dot I Sensory memory is triggered by onset of stimulus I Can fade if stimulus persists too long Some challenges to sensory memory Haber limited functionality of sensory memory 0 Only occurs when followed by a blank screen 0 Otherwise masking 0 Only clear application is reading in lightning storm Other possible functions 0 Allows for integration of brie y presented info 0 Provides a short term buffer 0 Manifestation of processes that typically go on at the subliminal level Echoic Memory Partial report paradigm 0 Darwin Turvey amp Crowder I Used partial report paradigm with auditory information I Channels left right center 3 letters each I Flash after stimuli indicated which channel to report I Results Partial report 54 Estimate Full report 44 Decay 4 seconds Evidence for the StmLtm distinction Neurocognitive evidence 0 HM Milner no transfer to ltm able to remember information for 2 minutes o B Shallice and Warrington impaired stm otherwise normal Clive Barnes BrownPeterson paradigm o Trigrams presented SIW 0 Count backwards by 339s 0 Precipitous forgetting in 18 seconds Serial Position Curve 0 Primacy remember items in the beginning of the list 0 Asymptote items in the middle of the list not likely to remember very well 0 Recency remember items at the end of the curve Dissociations 0 Logic some manipulations in uence one section of curve but not the other suggests distinct systems Speed of presentation Delay Interference without distraction remember well due to primacy effect with distraction the primacy effect is illuminated Atkinson and Shiffrin explanation 0 Transfer to ltm due to time in the limited buffer 0 As new information enters the buffer old items are randomly eliminated 0 The longer in the buffer the more likely for transfer to occur Rundus rehearsal technique 0 Had people rehearse every word out loud while hearing serial list of words 0 Frequency of rehearsal predicted everything but recency Problems with the modal model Impaired standard modal model does not necessarily hurt learning Possible to access LTM without going through STM 0 Pattern recognition Coding not always acoustic 0 Evidence for visual working memory Rehearsal does not always lead to better memory 0 Craik amp Watkins incidental learning task I Hear list of words and repeat words beginning with specific letter I Duration of repetition did not alter memory Depth of Processing Effects of rehearsal depends on the depth of processing 0 Type 1 processing I Maintenance rehearsal I Mere repetition I Less well remembered I superficial processing leads to poor memory performance o Type 2 processing I Semantic processing I Elaborative rehearsal I Better remembered Evidence o Craik amp Watkins lack of benefit of maintenance rehearsal o Craik amp Tulving I Incidental learning Physical repeating letters Auditory rhyming Semantic meaning I Surprise memory recall test Semantic performance was superior Problems with depth of Processing Transfer appropriate processing 0 Morris Bransford amp Franks I Encoded semantically or acoustically I Tested semantically or acoustically I Performance optimized when tested in same modality as learned Working memory approach Does STM provide working space for manipulating information Assumptions STM is like a desktop 0 Temporary storage is involved in information processing o Allows independent sources to interact 0 Common system operates across wide range of tasks I Like a desktop Basic model 0 Central executive provides the basic area in which calculations are made 0 Articulary loop I Slave system for audition o Visual spatial sketch pad I Slave system for vision Working memory model Characteristics of the Central Executive o Plans and coordinates but does not store information Executive supervisory Decides which issues deserve attention Selects a strategy Decides how to tackle a problem Limited ability to perform simultaneous tasks OOOOO Load rehearsing digits modestly impairs o Learning primacy but not recency Recall Sentence verification Categorization Reasoning o Everything but recognition Damage to frontal cortex leads to 0 Difficulty planning 0 Difficulty reasoning Evidence for the Central Executive 0 Task Hold x digits in mind while generating random number sequences 0 Ramdomness of digit generation greater redundancy means reduces randomness as function of concurrent digit memory load 0 O O 0 423 Evidence for the Phonological Store Phonological similarity effects o Pgtvcd is harder to memorize than rhxkwy Unattended speech effects o Hear nine digits accompanied with I Silence I Spoken words I Nonsense o Recall impaired by distraction regardless of meaning Word length effects o Long words less well remembered o Welsh digit span study Evidence for the visualspatial Sketch Pad Brooks o Visualized block F and tried to decide which corners were pointing outward o Examined competition between visualization and I Response Pointing spatial response Speaking verbal response o Result I Speaking faster than pointing for visual task Episodic buffer o Temporary storehouse that can hold and combine information from the phonological loop the visuospatial sketchpad and long term memory o Integrates information from different modalities Evidence o People remember words in a sentence better than words presented out of the context of a sentence I Suggests words are stored in a meaningful representation in working memory 0 Cannot be accommodated by other systems I Central executive No storage capacities I Phonological store No capacity for meaningful analysis I Visual spatial sketch pad Sentence advantage works with auditory information Big picture conclusions Sensory and working memory What we remember quickly whittles down o Most info in sensory memory does not make it into STM o Most info in STM does not make it into LTM Working memory is like o RAM on a computer o A desktop where all the work gets done There are distinct types of memories associated with each sensory modality o Sensory memory I Visual sensory memory I Echoic sensory memory 0 Working memory I Visual spatial sketch pad I Phonological store Three aspects of longterm memory Encoding o Processes that enable information to be transferred from short term memory to longterm memory Retention interval o Processes that occur after encoding that may in uence whether the material is later available Retrieval o Processes that in uence the ability to recall or recognize the previously encoded information Three fundamental themes of memory Meaningful information is more memorable o Depth of processing Memory tends to be schematic o We remember the gist of experiences rather than the entire experience Memory is optimized when retrieval conditions correspond to encoding conditions Encoding SelfReference effect Encode words with respect to whether it 0 Structure upper or lower case 0 Sound rhymed with another word 0 Semantic was synonym with another word 0 Relate to self was true of self Reason for advantage of self 0 Self is highly meaningful uber depth of processing Encoding Generation Effect Slamecka and Graf o Read I Hot cold 0 Generate I Hot c 0 Generate leads to better recall than reading 0 Reasons for advantage I More self relevant more meaningful to you the more memorable it is Impact of schemas at encoding Schema general knowledge or expectation based on past experiences Schemas in uences what we encode Impact of schemas at encoding Expertise Expertise can markedly enhance encoding of information relevant to one s domain of expertise Expertise o Experts encored more information Memory for random numbers 0 Under grad learned to remember 50 numbers after hearing them just once by relating to track times Expertise memory for chess 0 Chess experts remember boards configuration better 0 But only for playable configurations Memory for orders o Waiters much better at remembering orders o Limited to domain of expertise Experts 0 Reasons for advantage I More organized schemas to enable encoding I Better chunking through reorganization Schemas are required for encoding Bransford amp Johnson superior memory if people knew what passage was about Bransford amp Johnson 0 recalled more with washing schema prior to info 0 no effect of schema afterwards Encoding of NonSchematic information Although encoding is often schematic it is not always so 0 Sometimes people maintain non schematic information Example 0 Remembering the location of the next page Video Elizabeth Loftus The Fiction of Memory
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