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Reviews for Cognitive Psychology
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Date Created: 05/13/14
PSYCH 108 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 423 Retention interval Various factors influence people s memory for experiences after they have already been encoded Retention Interval Spacing effect Items are remembered better when they are studied a few times over a long period of time rather than studied repeatedly in a single interval Suggests cramming is bad 0 Although effects more pronounced with delay Spacing increases the number or separate traces that will allow the subject to make a recollection Retention interval Passage of time Ebbinghauss forgetting over time D Initially dramatic forgetting then plateau Retention Interval Sleep Sleep enables memory consolidation Enhances memory Retention interval Postevent information Loftus misinformation study Saw stop sign Later heard question referring to yield sign Tested with both Results 0 Integrated question with original memory 0 Remembered yield sign Suggested Autobiographical memories Misinformation can produce false memories of entire events 0 Lost in a mall 0 Low probability events I Spilling punch on the bride at a wedding 0 Bad eggs 0 Balloon ride Creating memory with picture reminding of the past Participants received suggestion of having put slime in teachers desk in 2nd grade Half also saw picture of class Seeing picture dramatically increased false memories Verbal Overshadowing Basic paradigm 0 View a face 0 Describe it or engage in an unrelated activity Several reasons to predict verbal description should help D Benefits of Verbal rehearsal D Value of language Nevertheless Since original demonstration of verbal overshadowing Found to generalize to many different stimuli 0 Colors 0 Tastes 0 Voices Role of expertise 0 Wine Retrieval factors Performance is maximized when encoding factors resemble retrieval conditions o Transfer appropriate processing discussed earlier Retrieval Factors State dependent memory Alcohol 0 Remember better when encode and tested in same state 0 But better when sober than intoxicated Marijuana o Works for free recall but not cued recall or recognition Retrieval Factors Mood dependent memory Generate autobiographical memories in one mood or another 0 Recall previously generated events in same different or neutral mood 0 Compared to neutral mood I Same mood best recall I Different mood worst recall worst 0 Participants studied either on land or under water 0 Tested on land or under water 0 Recognition and recall Retrieval Factors Context Dependent Memory Recall in the same vs different contexts quot people actually recalled better underwater when learned underwater and vise versa Guiselman Participants witnessed a crime with car having a visible license plate Gave participants either free recall or License plates with blanks to fill in Latter approach increased performance by 15 items When they were given a black license plate to add numbers and letters it increased their performance Impact of schemas on retrieval in longterm memory Deese Roediger Msdermott Paradigm o Study word list of related items o Participants remember common associate sweet even though never studied Ienkins memory for sentences o People falsely remember seeing sentences corresponding to the gist of the sentences they studied Conclusion o People retrieve the gist of what they studied The debate over recovered memories of abuse Recovered memories are accurate o generally speaking approx 13 of sexually abused victims report some period of their lives where they did not remember anything about the abuse and later recovered the memory of abuse Recovered memories are false o Traumatic events are seldom if ever truly forgotten o Therapeutic interventions can cause false memories of childhood sexual abuse Evidence of False Memories Suggestion can produce false memories of entire events o Lost in a shopping mall o Spilling punch on the bride39s parents at a wedding o Being coerced to abandon being left handed Recovered memories of the incredible 0 Alien abductions o Embryonic trauma Suggestive practices of some therapists o Respondents indicated the memory recovery techniques you can use with adult clients who have no specific memory of childhood sexual abuse but who you strongly suspect were sexually abused I 33 recommeneded books on sex abuse I 27 used guided imagery I 20 used hypnosis I 29 referred patients to sexual abuse survivor groups Evidence of recovered memories Corroborative case based approach Case analysis Investigated seven cases of alleged memory recoveries Attempted to characterize subjects perception of their discovery experiences Attempted to characterize subjects perceptions of their prior forgetting Corroboration Attempted to corroborate original event D Attempted to corroborate forgetting Summary of the Case Analysis Discovery experience 0 Cue I All 7 cases had cues that shared some similarity to the original experience 0 Phrenology I Very sudden I Extremely surprising I Associated with marked emotion o Corroboration of the abuse I The abuse in all 7 cases was independently corroborated by the investigators 2 cases other individuals abused by same perpetrator 3 cases abuse had been reported to others soon after it allegedly occurred 1 case abuse described to another years after it occurred but long prior to alleged discovery 1 case witness reported hearing the perpetrator confess Big Picture Conclusions Memory involves three key stages 0 Encoding o Retention interval 0 Retrieval All three stages in uenced by two key factors 0 Memory tends to be schematic I We remember the gist of experiences rather than the entire experience Memory is maximized when retrieval conditions correspond to encoding condition Relevant to even very controversial topics recovered memories D Can be false resulting from integrating the abuse schema provided by therapist Can sometimes be genuinely recovered when retrieval conditions resemble encoding conditions 430 MetaCognition and Memory Strategies Metacognition Basic concepts MetaCognition One s knowledge about what he or she knows Originally investigating in the context of children s knowledge Flavell Two types Meta cognitive knowledge general knowledge about what one knows Meta cognitive experience Conscious cognitive or affective experiences that accompany and pertain to any intellectual enterprise Meta memory One s knowledge about their own memory Development Span estimation Flavell Friederich amp Hoyt 1970 Show 110 pictures How many can you recall Younger children overestimate performance Types of metamemory judgments Ability to anticipate future memory performance At encoding Judgments of learning At retrieval Tip of the tongue Ability to assess the source of one s memory D source monitoring judgments Predicting future memory performance Judgments of learning JOL o Made during encoding o Predictions of how well one will remember something Types of J OL o Ease of learning o How much study will be required to learn something Mediate learning rates D paired associative judgments Predict subsequent performance on paired associate test 9 Dunlosky and Nelson Introducing brief delay between cue and associate enhances prediction Were able to use initial retrieval ability to gauge subsequent ability Retrieval based metacognition Tip of the tongue Inability to recall something combined with subjective feeling that recall is imminent Brown amp McNeil o Gave participants definitions and asked them to recall the Word D Observed people routinely reported TOT o Associated with partial retrieval First letter more accurate during TOT 0 number of syllables Reality monitoring Challenge o Determine whether memory is internally or externally generated D external memories Characterized by o Sensory details o internal memories o Characterized by Cognitive operations o failures occur with memories with overlapping attributes Evidence o Internal and external memories differ in properties o Real memories more details o Suggested memories more cognitive operations D greater confusions when properties overlap more o Imagining with details creates more errors Source monitoring Harder than distinguishing internal from external Two types o Internalinternal said vs thought o Externalexternal source a vs source b D distinguishability depends on similarity Two types of processes for distinguishing o Systematic careful deliberation about source o Heuristic automatic low level processing of source D performance depends on which system is activated Linsday o Deliberate attempts to monitor source improves performance o Johnson amp Dodson o Manipulations that reduce control process hamper source Monitoring load 0 gtgt Aging Basic principles of memory improvement Remembering to remember o Only works if you remember to use them o Developing habits o Declarative to procedural memory We remember what is importantinteresting o Challenge to find What makes something interesting D Social ramifications of forgetting We remember what is meaningful o Challenge to relate new information to existing knowledge We remember what is distinctive o Challenge to perceive unique aspects of experience We remember what is emotional o Challenge to add excitement to material Basic principles of memory encoding Transfer to LTM Much information never even gets stored Rehearsal More repetitions better memory to some degree Generation e ect Put into own Words Depth of processing Greater elaboration greater memory Selfreferenoee ect More self relevance better memory Maltiplecodes Memories that are represented in multiple codes e g semantically and visually remembered better Schemas Memories related to existing schemas remembered better D Value of analogies Distinotiveness Novel associations remembered better Basic memory principles retention interval Delay Use it or lose it Judgments of learning Quiz yourself after a brief interval Spacing e ect Introduce intervals between repetitions Interference Code new information in a way that distinguishes it from the old 0 Beware of misinformation Basic memory principles retrieval Encoding specificity o Retrace your steps Recall related details Recreate mood Associative memory structures Recall related knowledge Schematicity Often remember the gist accurately even if details are amiss Key word mnemonic Basic principle Give meaning to meaningless information Key word mnemonic Elaborating meaningless word by phonologically breaking it down into meaningful words For example Need to learn Prof Prlwitzkowski 9 Break up into words that sound similar Pearl with cow ski Image Cow skiing down hill with pearl necklace Helps to be bizarre Link system Basic goal 0 Associate items in a manner that preserves order Basic principle 0 Establish a chain of associations with each item associated with the next Example list 0 Buying cold medicine o Writing a letter to a friend who lives in Australia o Giving the dog a bath o Mending a at bicycle tire Making sure there is enough dry Wood for the hearth Example Link system o A big iceberg sitting inside your car o A kangaroo jumping around on the iceberg throwing snow balls at you B Your dog climbing out of the kangaroo39s pouch Your dog then proceeding to ride on a little bicycle The little bicycle growing until it explodes into ame 0 Method of Loci Myth of Simonides Basic Goal Memorize material often a speech by mentally placing items around a familiar location Basic principle Familiar location provides pre established memory cues to associate information Example identify points w key word for each How you remember his first day at work when there was the incredible heat Wave oven How he was dressed in a suit While you were all wearing shorts and Tshirts shorts Commemorate his soccer skills soccer ball Relate this to his working skills how he sometimes comes up with very short programs that nevertheless do the job printer paper to symbolize program Application Think of places in your house Colorful pictures Associate Mentally place a large oven on the far left near some colorful pictures which you image are about to burst out in ames because of the heat Imagine the large cactus 39dressed39 in shorts Put the football on the small shelf above the door so that it could fall down on some ones head any moment Finally wrap the big black pot on the far right in printer paper Rhymes o Basie goal Use rhyming phrase to stand for items you need to remember o Examples 1 before E except after C or when sounded A as in neighbor or weigh 30 days have September April June and November High to low look out below low to high clear blue sky Catch Phrases Basie goal Clever expressions to remember associations Example Spring forward Fall back List order acronyms Basie principle Use order of first letter of words in sentences to remember order Order of colors in the rainbow or visual spectrum Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain Order of taxonomy in biology Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species D Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach Order of geological time periods Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pliocene Pleistocene Recent Cows Often Sit Down Carefully Perhaps Their Joints Creak Most important memory trick of all Don t just memorize Understand When you understand your naturally remember Defining Prospective Memory quot Prospective Memory ProM is our ability to make plans to retain and recollect them and to carry them out at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context quot Everyday Examples quot Remembering to attend a meeting at 2pm quot Remembering to take a medication quot Remembering to buy bread after school Encoding forming intention to do something later Retention delay between forming intention and execution ongoing task Retrieval remembering the intention at the appropriate time or place quot Prospective Component that quot Retrospective Component what Execution carrying out the intended act Measuring ProM Everyday lab Tasks quotAsk me for a personal item back in 1 hour quot Remind me to plug my phone back in after all the tests Naturalistic field Tasks quot Call me at 1pm on Friday quot Send an email at 1pm on Monday Computerized Tasks quot While performing a reaction time task in which you press one key for words and another key for nonwords press the space bar whenever you see an animal word Diary Studies quot Write down all the tasks you need to do next week Come back at weeks end and write which were not done and why Questionnaires quotAsk the participant to rate the frequency of various ProM failures quot Example PMQ Implementation Intentions Be speci c about where and when you will do something Experimental study Results Participants were asked to Write a report on how they spent Xmas eve no more than 48 hours after Half requested to form implementation intentions 9 when and where they would complete the report 34 completed with intentions B 13 without Big Picture Metacognition and Memory Strategies Metacognition There is an important difference between memory ability and what we know about our memory ability Memory improvement Basic knowledge of encoding retention interval and retrieval very useful for enhancing memory Memory improvement strategies can be useful but demanding and have to remember to use them Best memory strategy is understanding Prospective memory Best strategy for remembering to carry out future acts is to be very specific about where and when the action will be carried out
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