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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Tuesday May 13, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.
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Date Created: 05/13/14
PSYCH 108 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Spring Quarter 2014 55 Mental Imagery Imagery Demos How many windows are there in the home where you grew up Which is darker the green of pine trees or the green of grass Imagine a capital letter B rotate it 90 degrees counterclockwise Put a triangle below it having the same width and pointing down What do you see Imagery Mental experience of seeing hearing touching an object in the absence of any sensory input Propositions VS Images Propositions Essential meaning don39t resemble what they stand for abstract code Images Resemble what they stand for analog code The Imagery Debates Analog View Kosslyn Store information as images Images are functional in thinking Propositional View Pylyshyn Information stored as propositions Images are epiphenomenal Properties of Images Size Scanning distances Mental Transformations eg rotation Properties of Images Detail Depends on Size Imagine a rabbit next to an elephant Imagine a rabbit next to a fly Does the rabbit have eyelashes Reaction time was longer if the rabbit was imagined next to an elephant Properties of Images Scanning It takes longer to scan between objects that are further apart Same for mental images Kosslyn 1978 Subjects form accurate mental image of an island Task scan between different landmarks on the map image Criticism Demand Characteristics Demand Characteristics perhaps subjects think you want them to act like they re scanning an image Experimenter expectancy Subtle cues from experimenter J0lic0eur amp Kosslyn I985 Experimenters told a false theory about scanning Properties of Images Transformations When an object moves in space it takes more time to move further Goes through intermediate positions Do images behave similarly Limitations of Images Nickerson amp Adams 1979 Task Imaginedraw a penny Elements Whose head Facing direction right or left United States of America In God We Trust 1978 year Liberty 57 Imagery Imagery and Ambiguous Figures 015 could reinterpret the image 1515 could draw the figure and then reinterpret it Suggests that proposition meaning can dominate over analog code Imagery and the Brain Farah Same brain areas active when viewing and imagining letters Mental rotation Activity in parietal cortex proportional to angle of rotation Brain damage that a ects vision also a ects imagery Bisiach and Luzzatti 1978 Milanese neglect patients asked to imagine the view from Piazza del Duomo Ignored landmarks on imagined left side of space Cognitive Maps Internal representations of environment Learned primarily from 0 Maps 0 Direct experience in the environment Uses Navigation Staying oriented Wayfinding Giving Verbal Directions etc Are Cognitive Maps Accurate Which is further west San Diego California or Reno Nevada Which is further south Philadelphia Pennsylvania or Rome Italy Going south from Detroit Michigan what is the first foreign country you hit Organizing Principles Rotation heuristic Tilted structures remembered as horizontal vertical 0 Eg California Coast Alignment heuristic Structures remembered as being more lined up than they really are 0 E g Europe and America Hierarchical representation Influenced by locations of larger region that they are part of o Eg San Diego amp Reno Detroit example Border Bias Mishra amp Mishra 2010 Vacation home in Oregon or Washington Earthquake When people hear about an earthquake they prefer to select a home in a different state rather than a home that is equally close but in the same state as the earthquake Strategy Differences Route representationsstrategies Before starting I asked for directions telling me whether to turn right or Left at particular landmarks Survey representations Point to a landmark regardless of the route taken to that landmark take shortcuts o I kept track of the relationship between Where I was and the center of town also NSEW sun moon etc Spatial Abilities at Different Scales Large Scale Space we move around in Small Scale Space of objects Do they depend on the same abilities Big Picture Perspective on Imagery and Mental Maps Imagery People represent images in their minds in an analogue representation that resembles perceptual experiences Strong parallels between the Way We process mental images and the Way We process actual images Significant limitations to the detail of mental imagery Maps People s mental maps tend to be simplified is systematic Ways eg unduly aligned Although related to mental imagery ability sense of direction is a distinct skill
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