Week 2 notes World History I
Week 2 notes World History I HIST 1010 - GL2
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - GL2 at Auburn University taught by Michael B Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
The Rise and Fall of th Roman Republic The Roman culture has been about equally as in uential in the west as Greece 0 Government 0 Culture Ideology what behavior is acceptable The Legend of Rome All information that we have of ancient Rome is written by historians of the time so it39s all part fact part myth Some say everything began with refugees from the Trojan war 0 Some say it was the two brothers that most people know Romulus and Remus 750 BC atin speaking people settle a small village where Rome is later built They are surrounded by many different cultures and people groups Samnites hill people they tended to raid and torment the villagers Etruscans pretty much the only group that wasn39t indoeuropean but heavily in uenced the Roman culture 0 They also had very close contact with the Greeks In the early history of Rome the Etruscans spend several years ruling the early Romans this is part of the reason they are so heavily in uenced by the Etruscans Art 0 Architecture 0 Ideas Many Etruscan artifacts have been found however they are indecipherable 510 BC Roman people revolt against Etruscan king They create a new form of government called Res Publica When the king is nally kicked out two groups are formed Patricians the elite and wealthy PIebians common people Governmental Structure Magistrates all elected much like the Greeks and rotated each year all magistrates protected by a law I don39t know if this is how it39s spelled Sacrosength or Sacrosaint he didn39t spell it this law protected all magistrates from prosecution or physical harm if a scandal or crime should arise during a magistrates term magistrate of ces were closed to Plebians o Consul two consuls they are top of the food chain Have something called imperium which gives them the ability to command troops and make most of the important decisions in short their job is to protect the city They also are the deciding factor in whether or not someone is put to death for a crime 0 Praetor less important They commanded soldiers in a war whereas consuls decided whether or not they actually went to war 0 Aedile made sure that the city was clean Garbage Water ways Sewage Etc 0 Quaestors nances The treasurers of the city 0 Tribunes of Plebs protect the common people Power to block all government from doing things they thought was against the common people A kind of veto power Gave them a lot of control In charge of Concilium Plebis Could make new laws Cursus Honorum course of honors 0 Goal Voted into a small of ce Slowly work their way up Hope is to be a Consul Senate 0 Advice consuls and government 0 By invitation only elite wealthy Romans 0 Former of ce holder Consul gt o No formal power 0 All magistrates went to senate rst understood they would respect the senates advice 0 Gives senate MOST of the power Popular Consuls o Comitia Centuriata Open to all elects Tribunes of Plebs Common people Only met when they were called upon Only ever presented with things that were already approved by the senate They were not able to direct laws in ways that were best for the common people 510264 BC idea of citizenry reminiscent of Greece39s idea of citizenry 12 Tables laws that applied to everyone 0 Everyone being equal males 0 12 tables were laws that upheld the rights of equal citizens All people who could afford to buy their own equipment to be soldier were required to do so Pebian land owners farmers think of the upper middle class of today not struggling but not just throwing money around This gave power to the Pebians The majority of the military were plebian famers Rome tended to go to war often and needed them to ght wars 0 So when the government called the people to arms to help in the war the Pebians would refuse until they submitted to giving them something that they wanted basically they blackmailed the government into being fare 0 Stories of Pebians going into the hills until their demands were met then coming down and going to war Social Prestige dignitas loosely translated into what we think of as dignity Dignitas was little deeper than that the way I remember it and think of it is kind of like in Mulan the idea of bringing honor to the family that is so important that the actions of one person de ne the ENTIRE family 0 In Roman culture you could achieve this in many ways 0 Ultimate goal was Consul o The dignitas of your family was determined by your lineage so if there was a very brave general in your family your dignitas was greater than someone who didn39t have a general in their family 0 You could also gain more dignitas for your family The best way to do this was to ght in battle Namely do something very heroic or be extremely brave same way that if someone in your family fought in WWII and got a medal of honor the ENTIRE family is proud of that 0 Likewise you could detract from your family39s dignitas by being a coward in battle 0 Just think of honor and glory In the early days the constant battles and conquering is the key to Romes success Roman Self Image Tough Simple Sel ess service Fight and defeat Etruscans and surrounding areas gain control of Italian Peninsula Romans often extended citizenship to their conquered enemies but typically only the sophisticated civilizations Communities could keep government and culture Signed an agreement to be aies with Rome Have to give soldiers to war Only thing they don39t get a vote People start to want to be aies with Rome because of their power Expansion fuels itself with every group that they conquer they gain more soldiers so they can conquer more 264 BC At this time Rome is the main power of the Italian peninsula Bump up against the power of Carthage in North Africa Main con ict over Sicily Carthage worries that the Romans will take Sicily 1St Punic War starts over control of Sicily At this point Rome has no affective Navy 0 Rome captures a ship and quickly learn the techniques mastering ship building 0 They also develop a device that allows them to board the Carthage boats Rome beats Carthage at sea and makes them sign a treaty 0 Rome takes Siciy 218 BC 2nCI Punic War Hannibal attacks Rome at home Go up into Spain and through Europe They have War Elephants when they cross the Alps they lose many men and elephants This didn t stop them from in icting many injuries on Rome for about a decade Scipeo Roman commander 24 year old Goes to Spain to attack Carthages supply s Hannibal leaves to defend Carthage Scipeo defeats Carthage Scipeo sets a new standard for achieving Dignitas because he is 5000 young and 500 successful Rome controls Spain Romes Conquest of Greece Kind of a result of the 2nCI Punic war a Macedonian king allies with Carthage and this angers Rome Classical era of Greece comes to an end but they are still viewed as the for most cultural center most sophisticated Some Greek city states want to ally with Rome for fear of the Macedonian King Rome originally promises Greece Freedom to Greeks Leave them alone And respect their rights They promise all this because Rome has great respect for the Greek culture Ultimately didn39t work 0 City states constantly ghting annoyed Rome 0 146 BC Corenth won t stop ghting so Rome takes over Eventually all of Greece taken over 0 People enslaved o Artifacts stolen The conquering of Greece spreads their culture across the Roman empire 0 Smart Greeks come to Rome to be part of Roman society Price of Conquesi Military breaking down Many long wars keeps their farmer army away from their farms so long that their farms fail Only way to get out of debt is to sell off their land and military equipment 0 Family is destitute They can39t buy new equipment so the army shrinks signi cantly Only people bene tting from war are the rich Of cers take wealth of conquered nation Acquire slaves Of cers come back rich and buy the land from the farmers Estates are formed with giant farms run by slaves Class division comes to an extreme The extremely wealthy The extremely poor 132131 BC The Gracchi Brothers and the 1St Crisis of the Republic They want to solve the division of classes problem Tiberius Gracchus Elected as Tribune of the Plebs Has the idea of land redistribution 0 Public land land leased to wealthy land owners 0 New idea stop leasing the land to the rich instead break up land and give it to veterans and the very poor 0 Would solve the military issue 0 Fix gap between the two classes Senators are mostly these afore mentioned land owners and don39t want it to happen Tiberius decides to ignore the senate and goes strait to Concilum Plebis o This isn39t against the law but it is kind of an unwritten rule Concilium Plebis passes the law The senate hates the Gracchi brothers because each of them cause a problem Tiberius is just the more out spoken When Tiberius tries to run for a second term the senators dislike him even more 0 Senate worries that the Gracchi brothers will try and make themselves kings through their popularity o In 131 BC a senate led mob kills the two brothers Gaius Marius Jugerath North African leader attacks Rome Rome can39t defeat North Africa Senate elects Gaius Marius as Consul he is a renowned military leader 0 Amazing because he began as a commoner 0 Worked his way to consul Problem he can39t recruit people because not enough people own land 0 He stops making land owner a prerequisite Creates a paid army the professional soldier Shares the spoils of war with the quotcommonersquot instead of only giving it to the of cers People love this idea because now they have a nancial incentive to ght He also promises to take care of the veteran when they are no longer in the military This creates an army that isn39t loyal to Rome but to their leader Gaius trains them 0 They win many wars that were thought to be impossible to win 0 Marius runs 56 consecutive terms as consul because he has done SO WELL in battle and for the people Senate once again nervous Sulla s Dictatorship At this time Rome is ghting Mithridates Sulla is young and from a wealthy family Senate appoints him to lead the ght so that Marius doesn39t get more power Tribune of the Plebs doesn39t trust him so they strip him of his title and give it to Gaius Marius This humiliates Sulla Sulla has his own private army because that what rich successful people have at the time Marches on Rome His men wanted the money that goes with victory so their angry that they can39 t go and march with Sulla They force the senate to give Sulla the power back Win the war Returns as a criminal Still has a good enough army so he appoints himself as dictator to x Rome Perscription a list of enemies A list of people who he will pay a reward if they are killed Builds up the senate Strips the Tribune of power so that it can only defend individual liberties Sets limits on dignitas Sets age requirements for various magistrates This prevents overly ambitious men from gaining too much power His goal is to restore Roman Republic 79 BC steps down because he believes his work is done Proves that with enough man power can take over as king Roman Warlords Pompeius Magnus Pompi From wealthy family 1516 when Sulla marches to Mithridates Can39t run for of ce because he so young Uses wealth to raise his army Supports Sulla Nick named quotteenage butcherquot Many troops means easily gets power Saves government from a Tribune trying to take power Senate rewards him with a post in Spain 0 Wins many battles Eventually elected as consul Becomes a hero Fights off many crisis39s Wants to make sure when he leaves Consul his troops will be taken care of FindsJulius Caesar Caesar says promote me and I39ll take care of your men ulius Caesar Elected Gives land to his Magnus troops as promised Caesar wants money power and glory lnvades Gaul Gallia 0 Not actually necessary 0 War of choice 0 Enhance his own dignitas Takes 10 years but very successful Becomes extremely wealthy Troops love him because he shares wealth quotre ections on the Galic Warquot a book he writes about himself promoting himself Pompi ghts Caesar a civil war breaks out Each man has their own army Basically there s not enough room in Rome for the two men39s egos Caesar wins Becomes the wealthiest and most powerful man in Rome 0 And still maintains his popularity Uses wealth to build things providing jobs Cancels debts of the poor Popularity continues to grow Senate sees him as a threat Killed in 44 BC Civil War Breaks Out Octavian Caesars nephew adopted son Loyal to Caesar Fights against Caesar39s killer After war he does what Caesar did only more subtly Creates the of ce of princeps quotfirst citizenquot Never declares himself all powerful Respects the senate but he decides the laws Strips power from magistrates Basically senate and magistrates become more a tradition than an actual deciding factor in laws Establishes that when he dies his successor will do as he did His rule calms down the craziness of dignitas and private armies This system serves Rome well for a little while
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