Week 1 notes World History I
Week 1 notes World History I HIST 1010 - GL2
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - GL2 at Auburn University taught by Michael B Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Hominids originally from Africa all humanity began in Africa Neanderthals Homo sapiens We only recently left Africa Paleolithic Age 40000010000 BC The old stone age Hunter gatherer society comprised of nomadic tribes of 1520 people Men were hunters Women gatherers However the two genders seem to have considered each other equals Guess they had about a 20 hour work week No written records so everything we know is an educated guess based off 0 Tools 0 Bones 0 Objects Only de nitive knowledge we have is what 0 They ate 0 How they lived o Physicality No idea what 0 Religious af liations 0 Ideas Willendorf Venus o Exaggerated female gure 0 Multiple theories Symbol of a goddess Cave man porn Sign of a matriarchal society 0 Truth is no one is really sure what she means 0 Over all very little understood about this time period Neanderthal art 0 Scratches in a cave that is possibly art 0 No one knows if they39re art of scratches marks from sharpening stone blades o It does bring up the question of were the Neanderthals artistic Neolithic Age 100003200 BC 0 Change from nomadic hunter gatherer life style to agriculture 0 What happened Why the change 0 Stressed forced settlement Growing population meant not enough food so had to grow your own food 0 Climate change Only recently has become warm enough to in fact farm Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Work day consisted of sunrise to sunset 0 More sickness because people were living and eating in the same place that animals died and they 39relieved themselves39 to put it lightly Started in the middle east then spread to Asia then to Europe Aoriculture and the transformations of human societv Disease hard work closer denser population Military society develops quoturban revolutionquot 0 Cities 0 ln middle east cities develop between Tigris and Euphrates rivers what we know as the fertile crescent Development of irrigation systems and defense in the middle east Needed to protect resources Most cities used walls to defend themselves Hostile environment because of the new resources Fertile crescent is very small and very desirable so those who have the land must protect it as best they can Farming required arti cial irrigation Due to the amount of manual labor involved in farming slave labor began to develop Develooment of Cities Defense vs C000 Catal Huyuk 610000 people Initially thought it was a defensive city 0 No roads 0 No entries 0 Close homes 0 Only way in was through ladders that lead to the roof This theory is thought to be wrong because there is no agriculture near by New belief o Hunters and gatherers that built a city around a place they believed to be spiritual Evidence 0 Art suggests worship though it is debated Bronze Age The near east or afro Eurasia Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Mesopotamia modern day middle east Cities city states temples Around Tigris river the rst cities were built 0 Good for farming 0 First civilization Uruk Period 32002900 BC 0 In order to maintain irrigation and crops they needed some kind of master planners to coordinate building of the city believe they had one leader 0 Also believed cities were built in order to defend their resources Agriculture lead to increase in the food supply 0 Cities provided 0 Option of not personally farming so trades began ex lronsmith doesn39t plant his own food but he makes horse shoes so he trades horse shoes for food 0 Social lives 0 quotdivision of laborquot kind of goes back to the idea of trade 0 Markets emerge to exchange various goods and services for the things that everyone needs 0 Markets are also a driving force in the development of cities 35002900 BC Settlements of 3050000 people Cities about the size of Auburn start to appear 0 These are considered the rst real cities 0 Inhabitants are not all farmers 0 Cities are not selfsustaining and have to rely on outside farmers to survive City states rise 0 Single selfgoverned city controls surrounding country side in order to getfood 0 So basically the big city provides protection to the small surrounding farmers in exchange for supplies 0 Thought to be built possibly for religious reasons 0 Temples were often the center of the city 0 This is where everything big happened Markets held in temple in the belief that no one would cheat people under the eyes of the gods 0 These temple usually were very impressive and expensive Uruk temple was made of stone and wood not found near the city they spent lots of time and money building them 0 Goddess lnanna A vase found in the temple suggests regular offerings o Uruk also has the rst examples of written language Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Protocuniform kind of like extreme Pictionary there were no verbs of adjectives basically no grammar so you basically have to guess what the tablets are about Managed to translate it by working back through many languages Early records seem to be economic Whether to record sacri ces Or trade in front of the gods to insure honesty Writing was basically developed as an early form of accounting tracking movements of goods Pictograms All early writing was done on clay tablets with reads to write in the tacky wet clay then laid out to dry 0 3000 BC cuniform is developed Kingship and writing in the age of the Dynastic Kings Writing don39t really provide information about leadership Burial sights suggest a kind of class system 0 Small number of graves people buried with lots of stuff the upper class Majority of graves people buried with nothing Records show that kings emerge 29002334 BC 0 Kings are leaving records to commemorate themselves 0 No one knows why kings come about 0 Theory 1 Con ict required someone to lead an army and the kingship didn39t stop 0 Kings that commemorate their acheivments o Battles o Victories Cuniform becomes its own language at this point Rise of Empires Rule over more than one city Political entities formed by rivals and war fare Sargon of Akad 1St emperor The Akkadian Emipire 23342194 BC Conquered many cities As he conquered he tried to unite everyone by creating a standard language Makes Akkadian language the standard Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Also standardizes measurements Replaced by 3rd Dynasty of Ur Third Dynasty of Ur 21932004 BC Conquer Sargon39s descendants Use writing as a form of administration Keep tax records Created a form of taxation to fund the government Use writing to keep track of everything going on among the people rst kind of big brother government Old Babvlon 20041594 BC Code of Hammurabi Stolen after the fall of Babylon and taken else where 1St written law 0 200 clauses of quotif this happens then thisquot Listed ways of testing innocence vs guilt 0 Ex Throw someone in the river if they oat they39re innocent Allowed for lenience if a farmer leasing property has his crops destroyed by a storm or something his rent is waved Women had limited property rights Eye for an eye tooth for a tooth o Hurting a slave wasn t as bad as hurting a free man 0 Only in reference to free men 0 Believed that it wasn39t actually a revenge thing but a way of keeping people from going over board If you beat a guy up the guy couldn39t turn around and burn your house to the ground Three classes 0 Those who owned land 0 The servant class worked for a land owner 0 Slaves owned 0 People could move around among these various classes along with the rise and fall of the economy You could be a land owner but your crops didn39t turn out for a year or two and become a servant by borrowing money then working your debt off When borrowing money there was a very high interest rate anywhere from 3050100 this is why you worked your debt off Citizens began keeping their own personal records Signed contracts If they couldn39t write they could hire scribes kind of like lawyers today Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Later Bronze Age 1155 BC While Babylon is growing so is the very successful lands of Egypt and Hittites are developing Egyptians and Hittites Masters of making bronze weapons Stronger weapons and armor much stronger than copper Masters of chariot war fare Horses begin to be used in war fare Three people to a chariot 0 Driver 0 Archer o Swordsman 0 Mobile ghting Egyptian kingdom expands into fertile crescent as does the Hittites Egyptians and Hittites communicate through Akkadian cuniform 0 Peace treaties 1200 BC 0 Believed to be the rst peace treaty 0 Though they have their own languages they use Akkadian as the common language Trade expands 1St cities in what would be Greece 1206 BC Progression stops 0 quotpeople of the seaquot probably pirates take on Egypt and the Hittites Civilization destroyed o Hittites crumble 0 Cities in Greece destroyed 0 Egypt makes it but it39s set very far back 0 period of decline Ancient Greece and Hellenistic World West of Turkey Country side on edge of the civilized world Slowly trade increases with this comes writing and such 2000 BC Two civilizations Minoans on Crete 2000 BC Mycenaean on mainland of Mycenea 1500 BC Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Minoans Largest ruins in Crete called Knossos o Palace culture City surrounding palace Center of community Up to ve stories Some kind of writing 0 Linear A not understood Goods storage and redistribution Acted as a kind of silo for grains and food 0 Everyone sent goods to palace Made sure that everyone always had food No economy obvious at least No walls Seem to be no signs of a ruler Possibly based on women due to their paintings of goddesses There was war fare Graves with many men buried with weapons For the most part peaceful Capable of storing thousands gallons of liquid Had running water 0 On a river possibly Mycenaean Culture In uenced by Minoans Language 0 Linear B o Is understood 0 ldenti ably early Greek War like Cities have 0 Walls 0 Graves full of men and weapons Treasury of Atraius found in the 180039s o Mask of Agamemnon 0 Not actually Agamemnon 0 These showed the culture of the time 1300 BC Minoans switch from Linear A to Linear B o Wonder if the Mycenaean39s took over the Minoans The Aeoean Dark Age 1000 750 BC Fall of the Bronze Age people ee People stop writing Stop living in cities Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Signs of decrease in population Greeks lived in small agricultural villages 800 BC 0 People recover o Villages grow 0 Pop up 0 Travel seas 0 Begin writing again Phoenicians and Greeks meet 0 Sea faring 0 First to invent alphabet associated with a sound one letter goes with one sound combining the sounds of the letters makes a word 0 Greeks end up borrowing and creating their own alphabet Homer writes his epics Rise of Greek culture 450 BC 0 1St city states 0 Villages grow A LOT 0 Development of the Polis idea of Greek city states 0 Cities are key foundation for community Idea of citizenry 0 Rights 0 Equal treatment for all free men under the law 0 quotcivic equalityquot 0 Still many inequalities 0 Male citizens did have equality War fare believed to form idea of citizen 0 Poplite Heavy armor and shields Infantry Fought in the form of a phalanx shields almost interlocking in order to protect everyone Solidarity as a group 0 City states grow Establish colonies Originally a Phoenician idea 0 Ex Spain and France for trade Phoenician colonies are the ones that the Greeks originally visit Establish their own in Turkey North Africa etc Fill a boat with people from city states People land and remain in contact with their mother city states 0 Vix Crater 300 lbs Found in south France Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Grave of a Celtic woman Krater a Greek wine vessel 0 Fill up with 12 wine 12 water Shows that Greek trade reached all the way up to France Marcea Marsay France Manufactured in Sparta Classical Age 500338 BC More than just Greece Biggest is the Persian Empire 500 BC 0 O Persians take over previous groups like neoBabylonian Stretched from Iran to Africa to Greece Cyrus the Great Aknaeanid Empire Persia Start running into Greece Colonies under threat Never actually invade Greece Revolt 499 BC Greeks attack Persian posts Petitioned for help 0 Athens responds O O O O O Sends military force Attacks Secures Darius l Persian sends people to attack Athens attacked by sea Athens defeats them at the battle of Marathon Darius wants to attack but dies before he can Son Xerxes attacks for him Greeks are terri ed Persia lands with a massive army City states unite in defense 48039s BC Athens great Navy Sparta wonderful Army Beat back Persian threat Still worried so the kept the league that they developed earlier Athens put in charge of the Delian League 0 Each city state gives men and ships toward defense of Greece 0 Treasury kept on island of Delos Delian League 0 City gives according to wealth of state 0 Athens has most men and money so they have the most say Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Athens becomes a great power in Greece Develops a predemocratic government 0 Originally ruled by tyrants Decides to not have just one leader but on assembly of male citizens that vote on serious issues 0 War law etc 0 One man one vote and the majority vote 0 Citizens have to participate directly Called direct democracy o If you want a voice you have to show up and vote 0 Polls had to participate o Idiot was a term for people who wouldn39t vote and wanted to be left alone Needless to say they were frowned upon Eventually becomes a committee of 500 o Voted into of ce or by Lottery Decide what issues are important 0 These offices rotated frequently so that no one man becomes too powerful 0 Usually annually 0 Only ones that could hold of ce were the wealthy because they didn39t have the money to fund a campaign nor did they have time because they had to work 450 BC Pericles the city pay all public officials so that poor can be equally represented Exclusions Slaves o Considered cattle 0 Worked very hard 0 Sometimes they were educated as Accountants Doctors Teachers 0 They did not have job speci c work and worked with free people 0 Believed to have been 50000 slaves 1 slave 1 male citizen Foriegners Women 0 Didn t have rights besides they weren39t allowed to be tortured or enslaved and were important in religion and they could inherit a small amount of property 0 These people were not considered citizens Early Paleolithic times to the Dawn of Agricultural Society Athens becomes corrupt and begins to abuse the power it has from the Delian league 0 City states pull out 0 Athens sends a Navy and forces them to rejoin 431404 BC Sparta and Athens attack each other Peloponnesian War Athens eventually defeated by Sparta Sparta never part of Delian League Greece begins to fall because of depleted wealth Macedon Grows Alexander the Great king 336323 BC Quickly conquers Greece Uses Greek army Swears to rid the world of Persia and he does Later defeats 0 Egypt 0 All the way to Afghanistan 0 Stops at just short of India Conquered the entire known world 0 Essentially the king of the world Dies in Babylon Hellenistic Ade Alexander the Great39s empire is broken up among his top Generals Seleucid Monarchy Achaean League Pergamene Monarchy Ptolemaic Monarchy Aetolian League Antigonic Monarchy This somewhat uni es the people groups 0 Greek spread all around as well as in uenced by the many other cultures Greek philosophy and ideas rule the world till around the 140039s 0 Ex Library of Alexandria