Chapter 2 notes
Chapter 2 notes PSY 462
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Zemlock on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 462 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Luecken in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
Reviews for Chapter 2 notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/05/15
Health Psychology Chapter 2 August 2527 2015 The best scientific evidence in health Psychology is evolutionary rather than revolutionary then published in peer reviewed journals We tend to put more support in personal experiences rather than research My grandfather smoke a pack a day for 50 years and never got lung cancerquot Research Methods How researchers make valid healthrelated claims 0 Use controlled methods for collecting data Keep personal biases from contaminating results Make claims cautiously Do not overgeneralize or extend beyond what data shows Peer review each other s work 0 Replicate studies Correlational studies the relationship between two variables 0 Correlations are measured by a correlation coefficient R can range from 1 to 1 0 Correlations closer to R1 or R1 indicate stronger relationships between the two variables 0 They have two components strength and direction 0 Spurious Correlation there is something else that is causing the connection the third variable CrossSectional Studies analysis of several different population groups at the same time 0 Taking multiple samples to get group differences testing 20 year olds 40 year olds and 60 year olds and compare across groups 0 There s no comparison groups there could be generational gaps Longitudinal Studies longterm study of the same people over time o Takes a long time and resources people drop out hard to control variables Determining Causality o Correlational crosssectional and longitudinal designs only examine relationships between variables I They CANNOT tells us if one variable causes another variable I Correlation does not equal causation Experimental design compare at least two groups to be able to draw cause 0 Randomly assign people to either the control group or the experimental group 0 Only difference between groups experimental group receives one level of independent variable and the control group a different level of the independent variable I Independent Variable condition of interest is manipulated to see its effect on the dependent variable I Dependent variable the outcome behavior or response that is being studied 0 O O O Health Psychology Chapter 2 August 2527 2015 Confound Variable something that varies systematically with the independent variable and may also explain the dependent variable Placebo inactive substance or condition that has the appearance of an active treatment 0 A belief in the effectiveness of a treatment boosts the treatment s effectiveness 0 Placebo effect may account for around 35 of treatment effects 0 Placebos have been shown to positively affect treatment for migraine headaches pain depression anxiety insomnia asthma hypertension surgical outcomes Observational methods similar to correlational methods cannot be used to demonstrate causation o Prospective studies begin with participants that are diseasefree and follow over time to see who develops a condition versus who does not 0 Retrospective studies begin with participants who have a disease and look backward to see if they can identify why these participants have the disease casecontrol studiesquot Epidemiology field of study that investigates patterns of disease and factors contributing to the occurrence of a disease in a particular population 0 Epidemiologists identify patterns of disease mechanisms of transmission risk factors and ultimately causes of disease 0 Epidemiologists have two ways to talk about the rates of disease in a population I Prevalence represents the proportion of the population that has a disease or condition at a specific time I Incidence represents the number of new cases of a disease or condition during a specific period Risk Factor any characteristic or condition that occurs with greater frequency in people with a disease than people free from a disease 0 Ex smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer 0 Does not necessarily mean it causes it Risk Factor Approach identifying risk factors for a disease 0 Two ways to convey risk I Absolute risk a person s chances of developing a disease independent of anything else other risks Ex risk of food poisoning from eating sushi I Relative risk ratio of incidence prevalence of a disease in an exposed group to the incidence prevalence of a disease in an unexposed group Ex Risk of food poisoning in a group who ate sushiRisk of food poisoning in a group who did not Randomized Controlled Trial RCT similar to experimental studies 0 Participants are randomly assigned to either a study group or a control group 0 RCTs are considered the gold standardquot of research design Health Psychology Chapter 2 August 2527 2015 Natural Experiments similar to ex post facto design involve the study of natural conditions 0 Differs from a casecontrol study because there s no manipulation or placing participants into different experimental groups 0 Ex Drinking age on traffic accidents Meta Analysis allows researchers to be familiar with other s studies 0 Metaanalysis evaluation of many research studies on the same topic to draw an overall conclusion on that topic a composite of many studies Can we determine causation without randomizing to groups 1 A doesresponse relationship exists between the condition and the disease Removal of the condition should result in a decline in the incidence of the disease The potential cause must precede the disease A physiological causeeffect relationship is plausible Research findings are consistent over time The strength of the association between the potential cause and the disease is relatively high 7 Research studies are well designed and executed N 99195
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'