Innate Behaviors/Habituation PSY 320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Zemlock on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Amazeen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Learning and Motivation in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
LM Innate Behavior Patterns August 27 2015 We are born with the ability to perform some behaviors o Rooting re ex moro re ex gasping re ex sucking re ex 0 And other behaviors emerge as a result of development or learning Even those behaviors that we learn are built upon things we do naturally Re exes stereotyped pattern of movement of a part of the body that can be elicited by presenting the appropriate stimulus Stimulus 9 Response Sherrington 1947 was a physiologist who studied re exes Re ex Arc Stimulus 9 Physiology 9 Response 0 Hot surface body senses the heat removes hand Tropisms a movement or change in the orientation of an entire organism 1 Kinesis undirected movement that depends on stimulus magnitude plural Kineses a Closed Loop System Ex house thermostat clicks on and off depending on the desired state b Wood Lice Ex they like to move around until they find a wet environment 2 Taxis directed movement toward or away from a stimulus plural taxes a Moths bugs moving toward a light at night b Taxes are named according to the direction of movement and the stimulus i Moths exhibit a positive phototaxis direction of the light ii Fish exhibit a positive phototaxis direction of light and positive geotaxis direction in gravity iii Plants show positive phototaxis because they face in the direction of the sun iv Mice demonstrate a negative geotaxis because they run in the opposite direction of gravity when the board is straight up they run up the wall instead of going down Behavior Sequences 1 Fixed Action Patterns a sequence of behaviors that once initiated continues to completion without further support form an y environmental stimulus a Initiated by a Sign Stimulus b Effects of Interference You can t interrupt the fixed action pattern c Is this behavior innate YES EibleEibesfeldt s 1975 Deprivation experiment where they kept a squirrel from other animals and saw that it still buried a nut 2 Reaction Chains Response Chains a sequences of behaviors in which progression to the next step relies on the presence of the appropriate stimulus at the preceding step a Hermit craps go around looking for another shell when theirs gets too small LM Innate Behavior Patterns August 27 2015 b You have to have the next stimulus available before you act Habituation a decrease in the strength of a response after repeated presentation of a stimulus LM Habituation August 27 2015 Habituation a decrease in the strength of a response after repeated presentation of a stimulus Most obvious in automatic response eg startle re ex orienting response then being able to ignore it Stimulusspecific they will get a new toy and not respond after a while But then get a new toy and get all excited Innate response Principles of Habituation 1 Habituation curve depicts the decrease in response strength over repeated presentations of the stimulus Similar to Ebbinghaus forgetting curve the baby looking at the spices less Recovery response strength increases in proportion to the time away from the stimulus stronger response for longer time away Overlearning repeated presentations of a stimulus after habituation has occurred lengthens the amount of time required for recovery a Like Ebbinghaus overlearning it s going to really really stick b Overlearning same time away from stimulus not as much recovery Dishabituation response strength increases following presentation of a new stimulus no time away just a new stimulus presented Relearning habituation is faster the next time just like the effects of Ebbinghaus savings Stimulus Intensity stronger responses are more resistant to habituation you habituate more quickly to weaker stimuli Generalization a general tendency to respond similarly to similar stimuli with habituation it s the failure to respond a Vs stimulus specificity or discrimination b Big individual differences Tip of the Day Habituations a decrease in the strength of a response after repeated presentation of a stimulus you body can stop responding to exercise if you do the same thing over and over again Using Habituation to Study Infant Perception Basic Procedure 1 Experimenter shows object repeatedly Record how long does the child pay attention 2 Manipulate Show same object vs different object Record how long does the child pay attention 3 Interpret Longer attending times more novel Understanding goaloriented behavior experimenter reached for same object in new location or new object in same location Object Unity an understanding that distal parts of an object can be connected even when the intermediate parts are not perceived directly 0 Studied by Ionson and Aslin 1995 using habituation o Habituate to stick behind a box LM Habituation August 27 2015 0 Test on two possibilities for what lies behind the box 0 Broken stick got a longer looking time and the whole stick 0 So babies understand that the stick is whole even if it s hidden Classical Conditioning the process by which a neutral stimulus CS becomes conditioned to elicit a response Order is Important we will mix this up later 0 Taste Aversion conditioning occurs after only one CSUS pairing 0 Phobias avoiding the object of fear CR prolongs the problem Pavlov had an idea about how this would work in the body as a physiologist with the theory of Classical Conditioning 0 He called this Stimulus Substitution Theoryquot 0 He believes the Unconditioned Stimulus excites the US center and the Response center then produces the Unconditioned Response 0 Through association two stimuli can excite two centers US and CS through any pathway 0 Note he did not create different pathways just one big response center
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