Intro to Psychopathology; Notes of Week 2
Intro to Psychopathology; Notes of Week 2 PSYC 316
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 355 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
PSYC 316 Week 2 Monday 31 August Friday 4 September Chapter 2 Models of Abnormality Models of Psychopathology o ModelParadigm Set of basic assumptions and concepts guidelines for investigation in uences scientists observations and explanations of events determines clinicians treatment plan 2 Models are most commonly used Biological Model disorders stem from a physical cause Genetics neurotransmitters neurophysiology and neuroanatomy are the focuses of the biological approach to psychopathology The belief of this model is that mental disorders and dysfunction are directly related to the structures and functions of one s brain Example Katie has anxiety Her doctors look for a history of diseases a possible brain defect or any genetic factors that may have made her more vulnerable to developing anxiety Psvchodvnamic Model our unconscious motives coming from the con ict between the Id Ego and Superego affect our feelings and behaviors Anything we exhibit as adults are the results of our childhood experiences Example Roy has trust issues in his relationship with his wife He is asked about his relationship with the other women in his life if his mother let him fall when she said she would catch him if his aunt forgot to pick him up from school if his elementary school crush embarrassed him in front of the entire class etc IMPORTANT Psychoanalytic refers to Freud s theories unconscious motives affect our emotions and behavior The Id Ego and Superego make up the personality Freud If the three components are in constant con ict the result is anxiety Psychodynamic refers to Freud s psychoanalytic theories and the similaradapted theories of his followers Other Models Include Behavioral Model The main factors that in uence behavior are the effects of the environment on the person The behavioral approach focuses on learning as it affects the person classical conditioning Example If Rick is addicted to heroin and sees a syringe lying around either at home or at a doctor s office for his yearly checkup because maybe he still cares at least a little about his health he will sometimes experience physiological responses that are similar to what he feels when he takes heroin He has been conditioned to understand that seeing a syringe means heroin Coqnitive Model People s perceptions and thoughts in uence their behavioral emotional and physiological reactions It is possible to learn how to counteract the distorted and dysfunctional perceptions due to distress by modifying the way they think ClassicalOperant Conditioning amp ModelingObservational Learning Example When Carrie sees a baby she automatically gets annoyed because she believes all babies cry too loud and she finds it incredibly unpleasant HumanisticExtentialist Model This approach stresses that humans gravitate towards growth goal ful llment and overall lifesatisfaction Failing to grow and realize one s potential results in abnormality Example Gina is alienated from her friends thus causing her to feel unloved meaningless and in general depressed Sociocultural Model Psychological disorders are most likely caused by factors involving the effects of one s family and society Example Paul is depressed Supporters of the Sociocultural Model will look at the social and cultural aspects of his surroundings such as the norms and expectations of him imposed by the people around him society or his family dynamics socialcultural The treatment options include Community Interventions Group Therapy and Family Types of Conditioning Operant Conditioning Changing a behavior with positive reinforcement following desired response to a stimulus Example When Andy gets an A on his spelling test behavior he gets to have ice cream after dinner desired response Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus causes a response after being paired with the neutral stimulus Example The sound of a pager going off is a neutral stimulus To Nurse Carl when he got paged at the hospital it meant someone was in need of immediate care which caused him a lot of stress Carl retires and no longer needs his pager When he hears an alarm or anything that sounds like his pager he is overcome with anxiety and stress Modeling amp Observational Learning Learning through observing another person s a model s behavior Example Emma observer watches Grandma Nell model roll her eyes at Grandpa Wes when he burps at the table Emma starts rolling her eyes when Grandpa Wes burps The Biological Model Search for biological abnormalities that can account for abnormal behavior Special attention to brain structures neurobiological activity 0 A Medical Perspective Brain disease causes mental illness 0 Chemical Imbalance medication is used to either speed something up or slow something down in the brain to equalize and normalize the effects of the imbalance Genetics Heritability of different disorders often polygenic Polygenic Inheritance one trait is controlled by two or more genes GeneEnvironment Interactions two different genotypes react to environmental factors Complications may be due mutations m rare genetic mutations and variations have been considered to be contributing factors Parkinson s Disease environmental factors have been linked to the development of Parkinson s including exposure to pesticides nutrition nicotine and exercise also considered brain trauma May be due to normal evolutionary principles Fear reactions as adaptive a long time ago but no longer so Psvchonhisioloeical Abnormalitv Endocrine system releases hormones e g cortisol in the body in response to stress etc Autonomic nervous system reactivity Abnormal Brain Chemistrv ie neurotransmitter dysregulation Dysfunction in the release reuptake or lack of uptake of chemicals in the brain Example In depressed patients reuptake for serotonin is disrupted Common neurotransmitters discussed serotonin dopamine norepinephrine GABA Environment Viral Infections Example Schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to the u Intrauterine starvation inadequate nutrition perinatal complications and other stressors have also been understood to in uence the development of the disorder Birth Complications Autism and Depression Prenatal exposure to stressors can increase risk of child developing Autism or depression W There is a connection between disorders and speci c brain areas Certain areas of the brain increases or decreases the likelihood of abnormality In Anthropological Criminology it was once believed that there were connections between the nature of a crime and the physical appearance of the criminal Physiognomy judging a person based on their outer appearance especially their face Phrenology the measurements of the human skull An old belief was that deviants or criminals could be set apart from others because of the shape of their heads Size shape of brain regions may be abnormal Particular areas of the brain are frequently implicated in psychopathy Limbic System eg amygdala emotions and hypothalamus planning reasoning Biological Treatments o 3 Types of Biological Treatments Drug Therapy very common Antidepressants for treatment of depression Two main types of antidepressants SSRIs increases the activity of serotonin MAO Inhibitors prevents monoamine serotonin breakdown Anxiolytics for treatment of anxiety Benzodiazepines tranquilizers Antipsychotics treatment for symptoms of schizophrenia agitation and delusions Electroconvulsive Therapy uncommon Used as a treatment for severe depression Electric shocks are passed through the hemispheres of the brain inducing seizures Last resort but 10000 attempt every year Psvchosurgerv uncommon Disabling or severing areas of the brain in the hopes of treating mental disorders Pathways between the limbic system are targeted L0b0t0my 193 Os destruction of connective nerve fibers or tissues in the frontal lobe for the purpose of curing mental disorders such as major depression obsessive compulsive disorder or bipolar disorder DeepBrain Stimulation an implanted device sends electrical impulses to a specific area of the brain as a treatment for Parkinson s Disease and major depression Subcaudate Tractotomy severing the connection between the orbitofrontal cortex to the hypothalamus as a treatment for OCD and depression Cingulotomy in the cingulum bundle the supracallosal fibers are severed to treat OCD and depression Limbic Leucotomy combination of the Subcaudate Tractotomy and Cingulotomy under the assumption that both procedures would yield better results than one alone Corpus Callostomy severing the corpus callosum causing difficulty in crossing over information between hemispheres Used to treat epileptic seizures These practices are often considered extreme and experimental Drug Therapies Gaining more popularity since the 1950s o Four Major Groups Antianxiety tranquilizers Antidepressants Antibipolars mood stabilizers Antipsychotics Certain atypical medications may be given for other disorders OCD patients medicated with antipsychotics Doing therapy is more effective than medicatingtherapy medication Taking medication deals with the physiological symptoms and the patient does not learn how to manage or cope Summary of Biological Model Respected in the field Can be effective and easier Problems Can be too simplistic may not address root of the problem many treatments have undesirable side effects Great example of medications with too many undesirable side effects not medications for mental illnesses but it s a good representation httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vXu gnExS Jic Psychodynamic Model Oldest and most famous psychological theory Freud s brainchild Freud was the first to use this model instead of the Biological Model The extension of Freud s original theorizing over decades from psychoanalytic gt psychodynamic o Elements of the Extension Free Association In order to help patients learn more about how they think suppressed thoughts in the unconscious mind the patient speaks the first thoughts or feelings that come to mind Patient is put in a comfortable position Eye contact with therapist etc Example Friends The One With Joey s Big Break Phoebe can t remember why she s mad at Ross httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvjwziXSeabd4 Central Idea behavior is determined by dynamics within the person of which they are often unaware Ideally all three systems are involved and not in con ict when con ict exists between the systems gt dysfunction ie psychopathology Freud s Psvchomlvsis Claim the brain is divided into three operating systems Id pleasure principle seeks pleasure avoids pain sexual desireurges Example Hey Joey Id here I know you re hungry You could go out and get food from the restaurant down the street but you re also tired and your roommate left most of his sandwich in the fridge So you re going to eat that It s easier Ego reality principle balance between Id and Superego Reality does not always follow the desires of Id Example Hey Joey It s Ego speaking I know you re hungry and tired but you won t eat your roommate s sandwich Superego moral principle contrast to Id Example Hey Joey This is Superego I see you eyeing your roommate s sandwich Being hungry and tired doesn t justify stealing someone else s food Even if your roommate might forget that he still has a sandwich to eat you still shouldn39t eat it First 5 years are most crucial and de nes the rest of one s life Freud Psychoanalytic Theory One guards oneself against anxiety through the use of defense mechanisms that are categorized as healthy or unhealthy o Examples m Blocking external events from entering your mind If something is too dif cult to deal with denial is an outright refusal to acknowledge the event Example Hannah is addicted to drinking soda every day after class She is taking in too much sugar and has been told by her doctor that it isn t good for her health She tells him that she doesn t have a problem and that her health cannot possibly be at risk Projection Attributing your negative thoughts motives or emotions onto another person Example Kayla dislikes her neighbor so much she gets lost in her hatred and believes that her neighbor hates her too Displacement Being angry with one person and taking out your anger on someone else Example Kevin got scolded by his teacher in class He went home and punched his brother in the face Rationalization Finding a reasonable explanation for your unacceptable feelings or behaviors Example Dale sold his father s prescription painkillers to his college friends He told himself it was ne because he needed the money and his father isn39t in too much pain anyway Psychodynamic Therapy 0 Method Seeks to uncover past traumas and inner con ict Therapist is a guide through one s own selfdiscovery of insight Techniques include free association catharsis transference and countertransference 0 Important Contributions rst to apply nonbiological theory systematically to treatment and rst to emphasize importance of childhood experiences 0 Problems not for the masses ie quick cheap simple largely unobservable and inaccessible processes the unconscious mind unsupported in research and difficult to study The Rise of Behaviorism and Cognitivism Reaction to Analysis and its dream interpretation What about the hereandnow Dream interpretation does not necessarily mean progress for the patient Behavior is more important than a patient s associations Behavioral Model 0 Central Idea Psychopathology is a product of learning 3 Types of Learning Classical Conditioning learning through association Pavlov s dogs neutral stimulus bell paired with feeding bell eventually causes hunger reaction salivation Modeling Bandura s Bobo Doll experiment same gender model demonstrates either nonviolent or aggressive actions towards the bobo doll in front of children children imitated the model s behavior perant Conditioning learning as a function of consequences after performing an action one experiences a positive or negative effect Positive person learns to repeat that action to experience positive results Negative person learns to avoid that action to avoid negative result that follows 0 Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement R increases the probability of the recurrence of a behavior due to experiencing desirable results following the behavior Example When Jack tells jokes his friends smile Since he likes when his friends smile he tells jokes more often mauve Reinforcement R increases the probability of the recurrence of a behavior due to the removal of an undesirable stimulus Example Whenever Andrew runs in the house his chihuahua chases him yaps at him and bites at his heels Now Andrew moves throughout his house very slowly to prevent the annoying behavior of his dog ositive Punishment P decrease the probability of repetition of behavior due to a past experience of undesirable consequences Example Rachel doesn t sneak out of her house anymore because she always gets caught and grounded as a result Negative Punishment Pl decrease the probability of a behavior due to a past experience of the elimination of a desirable stimuli Example When Mary failed her math test her mother took away her cell phone Mary studies hard so she doesn t fail another test and get her cell phone taken away Behavioral Therapy 0 The Behavioral ABCS ie functional analysis Antecedents did anything happen before the undesirable behavior Behaviors what is the behavior Consequences how can we intervene to prevent negative results that follow the undesirable behavior Friday 4 September Behavioral Therapy Common Forms Svstematic Desensitization Treatment for phobias practicing relaxation techniques before being exposed to fear Pairing relaxing feelings With the object of one s fear can desensitize the reaction to the fear Highestrated treatment for anxieties Prolonged Exposure Foa Treatment for PTSD Individual might write out or verbally explain their trauma in one setting of ce Instill sense of trust in setting Anxiety level Will increase as they revisit their anxietiestraumas As they repeat these revisitations to their trauma narrative their anxiety Will eventually decrease The memories we have PTSD can deeply affect someone PTSD sufferers can develop a different response to their memory of their trauma Ensure patient has enough time available to dedicate to their treatment Problems occur When patients reach a high level of anxiety and quit treatment Strong Research SuDDort Unlike Psychodynamic Theories very testable Problems there is not a lot of evidence of symptom onset because of learning too simplistic can have high dropout rates but any kind of therapy has a dropout rate for any kind of therapy there is a 34 rate of patients dropouts Cognitive Model What about Coqnitive Processes Central Idea Maladaptive Cognitive Processes are the driving force behind abnormal behavior e g inaccurate or unhelpful attributions and beliefs Automatic Thoughts Example Dispositional Beliefs Example SchemaCore Beliefs hardest to change Example Example Cognition might be I am not good at x y or z and you truly believe it rather based on experience or not it Will make you feel sad and frustrated o How I think in uences how I feel Consequence individual will not attempt x y or z o No opportunity for Positive Reinforcement because they avoid the situation thus eliminating the possibility for new learning 0 Co nitive Thinkin Errors EXAMPLE Overgeneralization Example Disgualifying the Positive Depression or Anxiety patients compliment was just given to be nice and its not really true Example All or Nothing Thinking Example Catastrophizing Example Mind Reading or FortuneTelling Example Emotional Reasoning If you think it it must be so Example Co nitive Thera The Coenitive ABCs Activating Event Example M Example Consequences Example Like the Behavioral paradigm it has a lot of empirical support and it is easy to research in the lab Problems some have argued that cognitions are not a causal process behavior and emotion may be more meaningful treatment targets could be viewed as invalidating or arguing with client treatment does not work for everyone Co nitiveBehavior Thera CBT Combines Behavioral Theory and Cognitive Theory There is evidence for its effectiveness More comprehensive approach to treating abnormal behaviors New Wave of CoenitiveBehavioral Therapies Acceptance and Commitment Therapy ACT Dialectical Behavior Therapy DBT and MindfulnessBased Cognitive Therapy MBCT Acceptance and Commitment Therapy ACT Dialectic211 Behavior Theranv DBT targeting validation of emotional experience Whereas CBT focuses on validation of cognition MindfulnessBased Cognitive Therapy MBCT Recognizing and accepting thoughts as one s thoughts Not trying to alter or challenge one s thoughts similar to Cognitive Therapy
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