Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Wednesday May 14, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
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Date Created: 05/14/14
ESS 3 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH Spring Quarter 2014 514 Iron Iron is a trace mineral Found in a component of protein called hemoglobin Two types of iron are found in foods 0 Heme iron found in animalbased foods and more absorbable o Nonheme iron not easily absorbed Recommended intake 0 RDA varies based on age gender and other factors 0 18 times higher for vegetarians 0 Higher for young women than for men Sources of iron 0 Meat poultry fish clams oysters enriched cereals and breads Iron Absorption Iron absorption refers to the amount of dietary iron that the body obtains and uses from food Health adults absorb about 10 to 15 of dietary iron Storage levels of iron have the greatest in uence on iron absorption Iron absorption increases when body stores are low When iron stores are high absorption decreases to help protect against toxic effects of iron overload Absorption of heme iron ranges from 15 to 35 In contrast 2 to 20 of nonheme iron in plant foods such as rice maize black beans soybeans and wheat is absorbed Meat proteins and vitamin C will improve the absorption of nonheme iron What if you consume too much iron Iron overdose is the most common cause of poisoning deaths in children Toxicity symptoms nausea vomiting diarrhea dizziness confusion Delayed treatment of iron toxicity can result in severe damage to the heart central nervous system liver kidneys What if you don t consume enough iron Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world Irondeficiency anemia red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin Highrisk people include infants young children preadolescent girls menstruating women and pregnant women Zinc A trace mineral A coenzyme for hemoglobin production and for many other enzymes Required for proper development and function of the immune system Required for normal growth Recommended intake 0 The need for zinc is small but the amount of absorption is variable 0 Vegetarians may need zinc supplements Sources of zinc 0 Red meats some seafood whole grains enriched grains and cereals What if you consume too much zinc Toxicity can occur from supplements Symptoms are intestinal pain cramps nausea vomiting loss of appetite What if you don t consume enough zinc De ciencies are uncommon in the US Symptoms are growth retardation etc Copper Is a trace mineral Contributes to blood tissue collagen and tissues surrounding nerves ls required for iron transport ls involved in neurotransmitters required for brain function Recommended intake 0 RDA for adults is 900 mgday Sources of copper 0 Organ meats etc Bone Health Bone structure 0 Provides strength to support the body 0 Allows for exibility o Composed of about 65 minerals providing the hardness of bone 0 Collagenfibers fibrous protein in bone tissue providing strength durability and exibility Two types of bone tissue 0 Cortical bone compact bone very dense tissue making up 80 of the skeleton o Trabecular bone spongy bone scaffolding Bone mass is regularly recycled by a process of remodeling o Breakdown surface of bones is broken down by osteoclasts I Osteoclasts are cells that erode the surface of bones 0 Formation of new bone by osteoblasts I Osteoblasts produce the collagencontaining component of bone Bone density 0 Refers to the strength of bones 0 Peak bone density is reached before the age of 30 0 Density begins to decrease after age 40 because breakdown exceeds new bone formation Calcium Is the most abundant major mineral in the body ls required to form and maintain our bones and teeth 99 of calcium is associated with bones The other 1 can be problematic Assists with acidbase balance ls critical for transmission of nerve impulses Assists in muscle contraction Calcium is found in limited sources and is not readily absorbed Only 3040 of calcium in your diet actually gets absorbed RDA accounts for this Calcium circulates in the blood Needed for blood clotting nerve transmission to transport ions maintain blood pressure and promotes growth hormone production Bioavailability The extent at which a nutrient can actually be absorbed vs what is present in the intestine Intake looks sufficient but nutrient is not being absorbed Minerals are affected by this Calcium Absorption Absorption interference o Fibers in certain plants and supplements High amount of dietary protein Vitamin C and D de ciency High phosphorus Caffeine and drugs 0 Stress Exercise causes release of growth hormones which promotes calcium absorption Sweating causes loss of electrolytes and calcium Excess protein and urine excretion causes loss of calcium takes calcium with it 0 O O 0 Calcium in the blood Calcium circulated in the blood Calcium can leave the blood and enter bones promotes bone density Calcium is released from bones back into the blood for use of the other 1 if body is de cient Bones will suffer and disease will occur Exercise and calcium Exercise promotes calcium absorption through release of growth hormones Weight bearing exercise strengthens bones by allowing them to take up more calcium Recommended intake AI values vary with age and gender Intake is limited by bioavailability the amount that can be absorbed What happens if you consume too much calcium Excess calcium is excreted from the body Calcium supplements can lead to mineral imbalances What if you don t consume enough calcium Longterrn consequence of inadequate calcium is osteoporosis Phosphorus A major mineral Critical for proper bone formation Found in ATP DNA RNA Required to regulate biochemical pathways by activating or deactivating enzymes A major component of the cell membrane Recommended Intake 0 RDA for phosphorus is 700 mgday What happens if you consume too much phosphorus 0 Causes muscle spasms convulsions Magnesium A major mineral Assists over 300 enzyme systems to function properly Required for the production of ATP DNA and proteins Supports muscle contraction and blood clotting Recommended intake 0 RDA varies based on age and gender I 310 mgday for women age 1930 What if you consume too much magnesium o No toxicity from magnesium in food 0 Magnesium supplements can cause diarrhea nausea cramps and dehydration What if you don t consume enough Low blood cholesterol Fluoride 99 of the body s uoride is stored in teeth and bones A trace mineral Required for proper development Recommended intake 0 RDA varies by gender and increase with age during childhood Sources of uoride o Fluoridated dental products What if you consume too much Fluorosis excess uoride Osteoporosis Disease characterized by 0 Low bone mass 0 Deterioration of bone tissue 0 Fragile bones leading to bone fractures o Compaction of bone decreased height Age is a factor for osteoporosis because 0 Bone mass decrease with age Elderly females are at risk 80 of Americans Nutritional factors may affect the risk for osteoporosis Calcium and Vitamin D are important for proper bone development Physical activity in uences the risk levels of osteoporosis No cure for osteoporosis Progression may be slowed by 0 Adequate calcium and Vitamin D intake 0 Regular exercise medications to slow 0 r stop bone breakdown
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