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ASTR 1120 - Week 1 Notes

by: Kara Ott

ASTR 1120 - Week 1 Notes ASTR 11200

Marketplace > Rowan University > ASTR 11200 > ASTR 1120 Week 1 Notes
Kara Ott
GPA 4.0
Exploration of the Solar system
Andrew Watson

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About this Document

These are the notes I took from reading Chapter 1, lecture in class, and homework notes. These will be helpful to have for our Midterm exam since we will not have a quiz on Chapter 1 to study from.
Exploration of the Solar system
Andrew Watson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Ott on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 11200 at Rowan University taught by Andrew Watson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/15
ASTR 1 1200 Week 1 Notes Chapter 1 Reading Notes 0 Solar system consists of the Sun the planets and their moons and countless smaller object ie asteroids comets etc 0 Milky Way Galaxy Diskshaped collection of stars that our solar system belongs to 0 Galaxy great island of stars in space with a few hundred million to a trillion of more stars 0 Galaxy clusters groups of galaxies with more than a few dozen members 0 Superclusters regions in which galaxies galaxy clusters are more tightly packed 0 Universe the sum total of all matter and energy encompassing the superclusters voids and everything in them 0 Astronomical Unit AU Earth s average distance from the sun 150 million km 0 Lightyear 11y distance light can travel in a year 10 trillion km 0 Sirius brightest star in the night sky 8 1y away 0 Orion Nebula giant cloud where planets and stars are forming 1500 1y away 0 Andromeda Galaxy 25 billion ly away so we see it as it was 25 billion years ago 0 Observable universe portion of the entire universe that we can potentially observe 0 Alpha Centauri nearest star system to ours 3star system 44 ly away 0 Nuclear fusion process in which light weight atomic nuclei smash together and stick to make heavier nuclei 0 Supernovae titanic explosions in which the most massive stars die 0 Rotation spin of Earth on its axis that happens daily 0 Orbit revolution of the Earth around the Sun that happens yearly 0 Light takes approximately one second to reach Earth from the moon and approximately 8 minutes to reach Earth from the Sun 0 The Milky Way Galaxy contains 100 billion stars ASTR 1 1200 Week 1 Notes 0 Milky Way Galaxy is only one of about 100 billion galaxies in the observable universe 0 Looking farther into space means looking further back in time 0 While the universe as a whole continues to expand individual galaxies and galaxy clusters do not expand 0 A star is born when gravity compresses the material in a cloud to the point at which the center becomes dense and hot enough to generate energy by nuclear fusion 0 The early universe contained only hydrogen and helium and a trace of lithium 0 Other elements such as carbon nitrogen oxygen and iron seem to have come from the stars through nuclear fusion of nuclear reactions In class notes 0 Universal Hierarchy 0 Earth gt Stellar systems gt Galaxies gt Groups and Clusters gt Superclusters vs voids which are an underconcentration of matter gt universe gt Multiuniverse 0 Cosmic Neighbors 0 Sun 0 Planets o Dwarf planets Pluto Eris Ceres Haumea Makemake o Moons satellites debris o Asteroids meteoroids NEOs Near Earth Objects o Comets KBOs TNOs 0 Units 0 MKS system gt Meter Kilogram Second I Meter standard unit of length Kilogram standard unit of mass I Second standard unit of time Temperature K C F Electric charge charge on an electron C e Angle radian degree arcmin arcsec AU semimajor axis of Earth s orbit 1 AU 149598 x lOllm 929558876 x o 1 1y 946052 x 1015 m 587850 x 1012 mi f V ASTR 1 1200 Week 1 Notes 0 Parsec pgallax of one arcaond 1 pc 326 ly 20626481 AU Derived Units 0 m Frequency Hz 0 Space and Mass Area length X length Volume length X area Density mass volume 0 Space and Electric Charg Surface Charge Density electric charge area Volume Charge Density electric charge volume 0 Space and Time Velocity distance time Acceleration velocity time Jerk accel time etc 0 Mass Space and Time Momentum mass X velocity Force N mass X accel Energy J force X length Power W energy time Pressure Pa forceaccel Pre xes o Nano n 10quot9 0 Micro u 10396 0 Milli m 10393 o Giga G 109 0 Mega M 106 0 Kilo k 103 0 NOTE E i X lOix Difference between speed and velocity Velocity has direction and magnitude whereas speed only has magnitude How BIG is the universe 14 G 1y meaning 14 X 109 ly or 14 billion ly Speed of light is constant c 299792458 ms or approx 3 X 108 ms Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe further objects are moving away more quickly Current model of Evolution of the Universe 0 Big Bang Theory gt universe came into being and expanded Doppler Effect of light object emitting light has its light redshifted or blueshifted depending on whether it is moving away from us or towards us Hubble estimated distances to other galaxies through their emission spectra red or blueshifted What is science 0 Process of building a logical mathematical model of a natural phenomenon which agrees with observation as best as possible ASTR 1 1200 Week 1 Notes The model MUST change if a simpler or more accurate model comes along because science is PROCESS not just a body of knowledge Scienti c nomenclature 0 Theory NOT a guess It s an explanation of a natural process that agrees with a vast majority of observations 0 Law empirical relationship discovered before its underlying processes were fully understood Pseudoscience fundamentally contradicts one or more aspects of the scientific method 0 Pseudoscienti c claims might I Be vague exaggerated untestable Forbid testing by others Fail to make progress I Refuse to acknowledge criticism 0 Homework Notes Largest to smallest distances 0 Milky Way to Andromeda gt Sun to center of Milky Way gt Earth to Alpha Centauri gt one ly gt across Solar System gt one AU Distances in ly directly correspond to light travel time The further away a system star is the longer it takes for light to reach us Universe was younger when galaxies far away were born Largest to smallest distances from Earth 0 Star on FAR side of Andromeda gt star on NEAR side of Andromeda gt star on FAR side of Milky Way gt star on NEAR side of Milky Way gt Orion Nebula gt Alpha Centauri gt Pluto gt Sun According to science these events happened in the following order 0 Big Bang amp expansion gt Carbon Oxygen etc first exist gt Nuclear Fusion begins in the sun gt dinosaurs go extinct gt earliest humans live Estimates say Big Bang happened 14 billion years ago On cosmic calendar which compresses history of Universe into one single year Earth forms in early September life arose on Earth in September and humans first walked on Earth just a few hours before midnight on 12 3 l Edwin Hubble discovered 2 facts ASTR 1 1200 Week 1 Notes 0 Virtually every galaxy outside our Local Group is moving away from us 0 The more distant the galaxy the faster it is moving away Astronomers have to measure distances and speeds of distant galaxies to show the universe is expanding Powers of 10 o IOXX 10y 10 o 10quot3 10Xy o 10X10Y 10quotquot3 If galaxies did not exist neither would we because we are made of recycled galaxies Age of our solar system is about 1 3 the age of the universe Our solar system is roughly halfway between the center and the outer edge of the Milky Way s visible disk


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