Ch. 5 and Ch. 6 Material
Ch. 5 and Ch. 6 Material BIO271
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mackenzie de Vicente on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO271 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Ingram in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Human anatomy in Biology at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Ch 5 lntegumentary System Functions of Skin 0 Protects underlying tissues and organs effective barrier Physical protection Protection from water loss to environment Protection from pathogens immune defense 0 Excretes salts water and organic wastes glands O Maintains body temp insulation and evaporation O Synthesizes vitamin D3 0 Stores lipids O Detects touch pressure pain and temp Anatomy of Skin 0 Cutaneous Membrane 2 parts Epidermis outermost super cial part of skin Strati ed squamous epithelial tissue many layers Dermis just underneath deep to the epidermis Areolar and dense irregular connective tissue 2 layers 0 Hvoodermis subcutaneous laver loose connective tissues adipose areolar O Accessorv Structures Hair Nails Glands Sensory structures Epidermis O Strati ed Squamous Epithelial Tissue Main cell type Keratinocyte made of protein called keratin Q Can be 4 thin skin or 5 thick skin layers called strata O Lavers strata 1 Stratum corneum 2 Stratum lucidum 3 Stratum granulosum 4 Stratum spinosum 5 Stratum basale 0 Skin Color 0 Color depends on pigments melanin and carotene O Melanin Made by melanocytes Stored and deposited in vesicles called melanosomes Protects nuclei of keratinocytes from UV radiation of melanocytes similar between races but amount produced and color vanes Melanocytes reach farther up into high layers of epidermis in darkerskinned people 2 kinds Eumelanin black or brown I Pheomelanin reddish O Carotene Yelloworange pigment found in some red yellow orange veggies Q Can also be in uenced by Blood supply to skin pale vs reddish Oxygen level of blood hemoglobin blue cyanosis Other blood pigments bilirubin yellow jaundice Lack of melanin albinism white Bruising hematoma pooled oxidized blood under skin purplebrown The Dermis O Anchors accessory structures 0 Contains capillaries lymphatic vessels and sensory receptors 0 Has dermal papilla projecting between epidermal ridges 0 UV light can damage collagen bers cause wrinkles O 2 lavers of connective tissue 1 Papillarv laver thinner part primarily areolar connective tissue 2 Reticular layer thicker part dense irregular connective tissue no reticular bers 0 Notice parallel arrangement of collagen and elastin Direction of parallelism varies across the body Creates quotlines of cleavagequot Important for incisions 3d 5 The anodermis 0 Has good blood supply compared to dermis 0 Usually inject into subcutaneous layer hypodermis to get into blood supply better 0 Has lots of adipose tissue Accessorv Structures Glands O 4 types 1 Sebaceous oil producing Most associated with hair follicles few on lips eyelids and nipples Waxy oil secretion sebum Inhibits bacterial growth lubricates and conditions epidermis and hair 2 Sudoriferous sweat producing I 2 types Merocrine or Eccrine not associated whair follicle quotwateryquot sweat Most numerous widely distributed across body Especially abundant on palms soles Apocrine associated whair follicle Especially abundant in arm pits around nipples in groin area Secretion contains protein that bacteria feed on cause of smell and potentially pheromones reproductive signaling 3 Ceruminous ear wax olands 4 Mammarv milkproducing Accessorv Structures Hair 0 Made in follicle Follicle is epithelial in nature 0 3 regions Bulb enlarged bottom end m from bulb to skin surface Shaft exposed part beyond skin surface 0 Sometimes associated with Oil glands Apocrine sweat glands Small muscles called arrector pili 0 Growth Occurs via specialized cells called trichocytes in the matrix part of the bulb which continually divide Melanocytes interspersed with the trichocytes contribute melanin to hair cells 0 Tvoes of hair Vellus ne hair located over much of body Terminal course hair located on scalp eyebrows eyelashes in nose armpits groin 0 Hair color and appearance Largely based on amount and type of melanin pigment as well as shape of each hair Accessory Structures Nails 0 Functions Nails protect ngers and toes 0 Structure Made of dead cells packed wkeratin Modi ed stratum corneum Nail root part imbedded in skin I Growing part of nail matrix Nail body visible portion of nail Covers nail bed Lunula pale crescent at base of nail Accessorv Structures Sensorv Receptors 0 Lots in skin esp through dermis 0 Different receptors detect diff types of stimulation Ch 6 Skeletal System Skeletal system includes bones cartilages ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize and connect General Functions 0 Support 0 Protection 0 LeverageMovement Something for muscles to attach to and pull on 0 Storage of minerals and lipids Yellow bone marrow in limb bones 0 Blood cell production hemopoiesis Red bone marrow Axial bones skull vertebra ribs sternum B Hip bones Prox End of humerus and femur Bone Classi cation Parts of a Long Bone o ProximalDistalepiphysis o Metaphysis o Diaphysis Construction of a Long Bone o Spongy bone containing red bone marrow Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Compact bone dense Auricular cartilage Periosteum Histology 0 Bone connective tissue called osseous tissue Ground substance solid material called hydroxyapatite Crystal that is made wcalcium and oxygen and phosphorus Without this bone would be very exible and bendy Protein bers mostly collagen Without bone would be very brittle and break easily 0 4 types of bone cells 1 Osteocytes Mature bone cells I Maintain the bone matrix 2 Osteoblasts I Add tobuild new bone matrix during growth and remodeling 3 Osteoclasts Removetear down bone matrix during growth and remodeling 4 Osteoprogenitors OOOOO Maintain osteoblast population 0 Arrangement of MATERIALS used to make a whole bone Outside surface covered by 2layered tissue called periosteum Outside layer dense connective tissue Inside laye epithelial tissue Inside surface lining of marrow cavity covered by epithelial tissue called endosteum O Arranoement of TISSUES used to make a whole bone Compact dense bone arranged in osteons Haversian Systems Spongy cancellous bone arranged in trabeculae O The Osteon circular repeating unit of compact bone Arranged in a special way to give compact bone its strength Analogy target 39 s L MBlL E Circular arrangement lamellae of solid ground substance hydroxyapatite gives great compressive strength Addition of collagen bers adds exibility so can withstand twisting and bending forces Analogy steelreinforced concrete like bridge column or house foundation 0 Sponov Bone No osteons Matrix forms honeycomb like lattice called trabecula Dvnamic Nature of Bone O Constant Remodeling Bone tissue constantly in ux 15 of skeletal mass recycled per yr Many factors affect rate of buildupbreakdown Exercise Hormones EstrogenTestosterone Growth hormone Thyroid hormone CalcitoninParathyroid hormones Diet Vit D and sunlight needed for calcium absorption Vit C needed for collagen formation III Aging Osteopenia isorders of Bone O Osteoporosis quotporous bonequot Spongy bone particularly affected Shows up often in hip neck and bodies of vertebrae O Achondroplasia Spontaneous or inherited genetic abnormality in a gene found on chromosome 4 Strongly affects epiphyseal plate growth in long bones Results in disproportionately short appendages arms and legs