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PSYC 2010- Chapter 8 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 8 Notes Psyc 2010-003

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Morgan Dimery

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These notes cover the stuff that's from chapter 8 that's on the knowledge checklist. This material will be on our exam this coming Thursday!
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter  Eight   Cognition  and  Intelligence     B.F.  Skinner  believed  that  language  is  learned  the  same  way  that  everything  else  is   learned,  through  imitation,  reinforcement,  and  other  types  of  conditioning.  This  is   the  behaviorist  theory.  He  said  that  if  vocalizations  are  not  reinforced  they  will   start  to  gradually  decrease.  Noam  Chomsky  thought  that  since  there  are  so  many   words  in  a  language,  it  would  be  impossible  for  language  to  be  learned  through   imitation.  He  said  that  children  learn  the  rules  of  language.  He  believed  that  humans   have  an  inborn  propensity  to  develop  language.  This  is  the  nativist  theory.  It   involves  the  language  acquisition  device  (LAD).  It  is  a  mechanism  that  facilitates   the  learning  of  language.  The  exact  nature  of  this  has  not  been  figured  out-­‐  just  that   humans  have  brain  structures  that  make  us  equipped  for  learning  language.  He   believed  this  because  he  saw  how  it  was  so  easy  for  children  to  learn  language.   There  were  some  people  who  questioned  Chomsky  as  well,  because  they  wanted  to   know  more  of  what  structures  were  involved  in  the  LAD.  These  people  believe  that   it  wasn’t  accurate  to  compare  how  well  a  toddler  can  learn  a  language  since  they’re   more  involved  with  it,  as  opposed  to  a  teenager  learning  a  foreign  language  in  high   school.  Another  theory,  the  interactionist  theory,  said  that  it  was  a  combination  of   biology  and  experience  that  shape  language.  They  believe  that  there  are  brain   structures  equipped  for  this  learning  and  that  children  follow  rules  of  language,  but   also  that  interactions  with  parents  influence  the  learning  of  language.       Bilingualism  is  being  able  to  speak  two  languages  that  use  different  speech  sounds,   vocabulary,  and  grammatical  rules.  Many  people  believe  that  bilingualism  hampers   language  development  and  has  a  negative  impact  on  the  education  process.  Studies   have  shown  that  bilingual  children  have  less  vocabulary  in  each  of  their  different   languages  than  monolingual  children  have  in  their  language,  but  that  when  the   languages  are  put  together  they  have  more  vocabulary.  Bilingual  and  monolingual   children  are  similar  in  their  rate  of  language  development.  Some  disadvantages  of   bilingualism  are  that  the  processing  speed  of  words  is  slightly  slower  and  the  ability   to  think  of  words  they  want  to  use  is  also  slower.  Bilingual  individuals  have  been   found  to  score  higher  on  tests  for  attention  control  and  other  types  of  problem   solving  tests.       Benjamin  Whorf  was  the  most  prominent  supporter  of  linguistic  relativity.  This  is   the  hypothesis  that  one’s  language  determines  that  nature  of  their  thought.  He  said   that  people  of  different  language  have  different  views  of  the  world.  The  English   language  only  really  has  one  word  for  snow,  while  other  languages  have  more  than   one  word.  Some  languages  group  some  colors  together  into  one  color  such  as  blue   and  green.  These  people  might  think  of  these  colors  differently  than  people  of  the   English  language  do  because  we  have  one  color  for  each  of  them.       In  problem  solving,  you  must  go  beyond  the  normal  amount  of  thinking  required   for  a  normal  level  question.  If  advanced  thinking  were  not  required,  then  it  wouldn’t   be  a  problem.  There  are  3  types  of  problems  associated  with  problem  solving.  The   first  one  is  problems  of  inducing  structure.  This  is  when  you  have  to  solve  analogy  or   series  completion  problems.  You  are  discovering  relationships  between  the  parts  of   the  problem.  Another  type  is  problems  of  arrangement.  This  is  when  you  have  to  put   the  parts  of  the  problem  together  in  some  way  to  satisfy  a  goal.  There  will  only  be   one  way  to  find  the  solution.  The  last  type  is  problems  of  transformation.  This  is   when  you  have  to  carry  out  a  sequence  of  different  things  in  order  to  get  to  a  goal.   These  can  be  really  challenging.       There  are  also  some  barriers  to  problem  solving.  The  first  barrier  is  irrelevant   information.  This  is  when  too  much  information  is  given  in  the  problem  that  is  not   needed  to  solve  the  problem.  This  can  be  a  distraction  and  make  it  harder  to  solve   the  problem.  Usually  whenever  numbers  are  present  in  a  problem  people  assume   that  it  is  needed  to  solve  the  problem.  Another  barrier  is  functional  fixedness.  This  is   when  you  think  about  an  object  in  only  the  way  that  it  is  supposed  to  be  used.  This  is   an  issue  because  people  tend  to  overlook  the  small  features  of  objects.  Another   barrier  is  mental  set.  This  is  when  someone  is  set  on  using  a  problem  solving   method  that  worked  for  him  or  her  in  the  past.  Sometimes  this  means  that  you  will   be  trying  to  do  too  much  work  for  a  simple  problem.  The  last  barrier  is  unnecessary   constraints.  This  is  when  you  think  there  is  a  certain  constraint  to  a  problem  when   there  actually  isn’t.  This  requires  you  to  think  outside  of  the  box.  Insight  is  when   someone  finally  comes  to  the  realization  of  what  they  have  to  do  to  solve  the   problem  after  they  have  been  struggling  with  it  for  a  while.       There  are  different  approaches  used  when  trying  to  solve  problems.  Trial  and   error  is  a  very  common  method.  This  is  when  many  different  possibilities  of   solutions  are  tried,  and  the  ones  that  don’t  work  are  removed  from  consideration.   This  can  be  effective  when  there  are  only  a  few  methods  to  choose  from.  This  is  not   effective  when  there  are  many  possible  solutions.  A  heuristic  is  basically  a  “rule  of   thumb”  used  when  solving  problems.  Forming  subgoals  is  another  approach  to   solving  problems.  Subgoals  are  intermediate  steps  involved  in  solving  the  problem.   Reaching  subgoals  means  you  are  closer  to  solving  the  problem.  Another  method  to   solving  problems  is  searching  for  analogies.  This  is  just  when  you  recognize  the   similarity  between  parts  of  the  problem.  Changing  the  representation  of  the  problem   is  another  approach  to  solving  problems.  Using  lists,  tables,  or  graphs  work  better   for  some  people  than  others.  Putting  the  problem  into  a  representation  that  works   the  best  for  you  is  a  good  approach  to  solving  the  problem.  Taking  a  break  from  the   problem  when  you  cannot  find  a  solution  can  be  helpful  when  trying  to  solve  a   problem.  After  taking  a  break  and  coming  back  you  may  find  that  you  see  the   problem  in  a  different  light.  The  incubation  effect  is  when  new  solutions  come  up   after  there  was  period  of  not  thinking  about  the  problem.       Risky  decision-­‐making  is  when  you  have  to  make  a  choice  that  you  have  some   uncertainties  about.  This  is  when  you  don’t  know  the  outcome  of  your  decision.   Availability  heuristic  is  when  an  estimated  probability  is  based  on  the  number  of   instances  that  come  to  your  mind.  This  can  cause  the  probabilities  to  not  be   accurate.  Representativeness  heuristic  is  when  the  estimated  probability  is  based   off  of  the  typical  prototype  of  the  event.  This  would  be  like  estimating  the   probability  of  the  number  of  tails  flipped  in  6  trials  based  off  of  the  fact  that  a  typical   event  of  this  would  have  only  half  of  the  trials  being  tails.       The  tendency  to  ignore  base  rates  is  when  you  base  your  decision  on  the   characteristics  rather  than  the  base  rate.  You  ignore  the  relative  amounts  of  each   different  type  of  person  in  the  world.  Example  from  book  (page  275):  just  because   the  characteristics  were  of  a  librarian  it  is  still  more  likely  that  Steve  is  a  salesperson   because  the  number  of  salespeople  outnumber  the  number  of  librarians  by  a  lot.  The   conjunction  fallacy  is  when  people  think  that  the  odds  of  two  events  happening   together  is  greater  than  the  odds  of  either  or  them  happening  alone.  These  are  both   influenced  greatly  by  representativeness  heuristic.       Some  people  have  said  that  human  thinking  is  not  very  rational  or  effective,  but   others  believe  that  it  only  seems  this  way  because  problems  are  being  asked  and   formed  in  the  wrong  ways.  The  questions  are  not  asked  in  a  way  that  the  human   mind  has  been  evolved  to  solve.  The  fast  and  frugal  heuristic  is  that  all  organisms   have  to  be  able  to  make  decisions  under  very  demanding  circumstances.  In  other   words,  organisms  do  not  have  the  time,  resources,  or  all  of  the  relevant  information   needed  to  form  a  proper  decision.  An  expansion  of  this  is  the  recognition  heuristic.   This  is  the  fact  that  if  two  options  are  given  and  only  one  of  them  is  recognized,  that   will  most  likely  be  chosen.       Reliability  refers  to  measurement  of  consistency  of  a  psychological  test.  This  means   that  there  are  similar  scores  for  each  repetition  of  the  test.  This  helps  correct   correlation  coefficients  to  be  found,  which  are  used  to  determine  how  much  two   variables  are  related,  if  at  all.  IQ  tests  do  yield  reliable  results.  Validity  is  the  ability   of  a  test  to  be  able  to  measure  what  it  was  intended  to  measure.  IQ  tests  are  valid,   but  only  if  you  are  referring  to  academic  work.  If  you  were  referring  to  intelligence   in  a  broader  sense,  then  they  would  not  be  quite  as  valid.       There  are  some  people  who  had  major  contributions  to  the  subject  of  intelligence.   Alfred  Binet  and  Theodore  Simon  created  the  first  useful  test  for  general  mental   ability.  It  was  inexpensive,  easy  to  give  to  students,  and  very  good  at  predicting   children’s  mental  capability.  This  scale  expressed  the  child’s  score  in  terms  of   mental  age.  It  gave  the  age  that  the  child’s  mental  ability  was  displaying  from  the   test.  Lewis  Terman  did  some  revisions  to  Binet’s  test  after  he  died.  It  used  a  new   scoring  technique,  the  IQ.  This  is  the  child’s  mental  age,  divided  by  chronological  age,   multiplied  by  100.  He  was  the  person  behind  schools  adopting  the  IQ  test.  It  is  still   the  most  widely  used  psychological  test.  David  Wechsler  came  up  with  the  first  IQ   test  for  adults  (Wechsler  Adult  Intelligence  Scale-­‐  WAIS).  He  used  a  test  that  was   not  as  dependent  on  verbal  ability.  A  lot  of  the  items  on  the  test  were  about   nonverbal  reasoning;  others  were  still  about  verbal  reasoning.  He  gave  separate   scores  for  each  of  these,  and  then  totaled  them  up.  This  has  been  adopted  by  all  of   the  other  IQ  tests.       IQ  scores  are  distributed  on  a  normal  curve  with  a  mean  of  100  and  a  standard   deviation  of  15.  68%  of  people  fall  within  one  standard  deviation  of  the  mean,  96%   of  people  fall  within  two  standard  deviations  of  the  mean,  and  99%  of  people  fall   within  three  standard  deviations  of  the  mean.  This  allows  us  to  be  able  to  classify   the  intelligence  of  someone  based  on  how  they  compare  to  other  people  on  a  normal   curve.  IQ  tests  are  able  to  measure  the  mental  ability  needed  for  academic  success.   They  are  not  able  to  measure  anything  about  social  competence,  problem  solving   skills,  creativity,  or  artistic  talent.       Heredity  has  a  contribution  to  intelligence.  Twin  studies  are  used  to  determine  the   role  of  genetic  factors  in  intelligence.  Fraternal  and  identical  twins  usually  grow  up   in  the  same  environment,  but  only  identical  twins  have  no  difference  genetically.  So,   if  identical  twins  are  more  similar  to  each  other  by  intelligence  than  fraternal  twins   are  to  each  other,  it  is  most  likely  because  they  have  a  greater  genetic  similarity.   Results  from  some  of  these  tests  show  that  intelligence  is  inherited  to  a  considerable   degree.  Adoption  studies  can  also  be  used  to  determine  the  role  on  genetic  factors  in   intelligence.  If  adopted  children  have  more  of  an  intelligence  similarity  to  their   biological  parents  than  they  do  to  their  adoptive  parents,  it  supports  the  hypothesis   that  genetic  factors  influence  intelligence.  A  heritability  ratio  is  used  to  estimate   the  proportion  of  trait  variability  in  a  population  that  is  determined  by  any   differences  in  genetic  inheritance.  There  are  some  limitations  to  these  because  they   can  only  be  applied  to  groups,  not  individuals.  The  heritability  of  a  trait  is  also  able   to  change  during  a  lifespan.  It  has  been  shown  that  it  increases  with  age.  The   heritability  for  specific  traits  can  vary  between  different  groups  of  people  because  of   different  factors.       Environment  also  has  a  lot  of  influence  of  intelligence.  Adoption  studies  can  be  used   to  show  this  because  adopted  children  do  show  some  similarity  to  their  adoptive   parent’s  in  their  IQ.  Even  children  that  were  raised  together  in  the  same  home  but   are  unrelated  have  similar  IQs.  Living  in  a  deprived  or  an  enriched  environment  can   influence  one’s  intelligence.  Researchers  studied  how  children  who  went  from  a   deprived  environment  and  placed  into  an  environment  better  suited  for  learning   had  higher  IQs  than  siblings  who  did  not  make  it  to  a  more  enriched  environment.   The  Flynn  effect  shows  how  IQ  tests  have  increased  over  generations.  Most  people   agree  that  this  has  to  be  due  to  environmental  effects  because  the  gene  pool  could   not  have  just  changed  overnight.       Heredity  and  the  environment  both  influence  intelligence.  Some  people  believe  that   heredity  gives  limits  to  intelligence  and  the  environment  is  what  determines  where   people  fall  within  these  limits.  This  means  that  there  is  a  “maximum  level”  to   someone’s  IQ  that  cannot  be  passed  even  by  having  outstanding  environmental   conditions.  Extreme  circumstances  would  be  able  to  knock  a  person  below  the   “minimum  level”,  though.  The  reaction  range  model  says  that  children  who  have  a   high-­‐quality  environment  should  be  at  the  very  top  of  their  IQ  range.  Children  who   have  a  low-­‐quality  environment  should  be  more  towards  the  bottom  of  their  IQ   range.       The  average  IQ  for  minority  groups  in  the  United  States  is  lower  than  it  is  for  whites.   Data  has  shown  that  the  difference  between  them  has  decreased  over  the  recent   decades.  A  lot  of  controversy  was  sparked  over  different  reports  that  were   published  stating  how  this  was  due  to  hereditary  differences,  and  how  these  were  a   result  of  ethnicity.  Another  explanation  was  the  socioeconomic  disadvantage.  The   gist  of  this  explanation  is  that  minorities  tend  to  grow  up  with  more  of  a   disadvantage,  as  opposed  to  whites  that  have  more  of  an  advantage.  This  could  be   the  cause  of  lower  IQ  scores  in  minorities  compared  to  whites.         Researchers  feel  like  we  need  to  expand  the  measure  of  intelligence  to  include   things  other  than  just  “school  smarts”.  Higher  IQ  has  been  linked  to  having  a  longer   life.  This  could  be  because  good  genes  are  both  for  high  IQ  and  good  health.  Another   explanation  is  that  self-­‐care  is  something  that  people  with  higher  IQs  are  better  at.   Another  explanation  is  that  higher  IQs  led  to  a  higher  socioeconomic  class,  and  most   likely  a  less  stressful  job,  which  in  turn  allows  people  to  live  longer.       Robert  Sternberg  said  that  there  are  three  factors  of  intelligence.  He  said  that  they   were  practical,  analytical,  and  creative  intelligence.  Practical  intelligence  is  the   ability  to  be  able  to  deal  with  everyday  life  problems.  Analytical  intelligence  is  the   ability  to  reason,  evaluate,  and  give  judgment.  This  is  the  kind  of  intelligence  needed   for  school  things.  Creative  intelligence  is  being  able  to  create  new  ideas  and  deal   with  novel  problems.       Howard  Gardner  tried  to  expand  intelligence  into  nonacademic  areas.  He  did  this  by   looking  at  the  mental  capacities  of  normal  people,  people  who  had  brain  damage,   and  people  from  certain  populations,  such  as  idiot  savants.  He  said  the  8  types  of   intelligence  were:   • Logical-­‐mathematical   • Linguistic   • Musical   • Spatial   • Bodily-­‐kinesthetic   • Interpersonal   • Intrapersonal   • Naturalist     Personal  Application-­‐  Measuring  and  Understanding  Creativity     • Creativity  is  the  generation  of  original  ideas  that  are  useful.     • In  convergent  thinking  one  tries  to  narrow  down  a  list  of  options  to  get  to  the   correct  answer.   • In  divergent  thinking  one  tries  to  expand  the  amount  of  options.   • There  are  creativity  tests  that  are  given  that  have  a  bunch  of  questions  that   involve  one  being  creative.     • There  is  not  a  single  personality  for  creativity.   • There  is  not  a  strong  correlation  for  high  IQ  and  high  creativity,  but  there  is   for  mental  disorders  and  high  creativity.                                                                                 Some  information  found  from:     Weiten,  Wayne.  Psychology:  Themes  and  Variations.  Boston:  Cengage  Learning,  2014.   Print.    


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