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Psych Chapters 4-7 Chapters

by: Katie Mayes

Psych Chapters 4-7 Chapters PSYC 110 - 008

Katie Mayes
GPA 3.56

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Psych Chapters 4-7 Chapters
General Psychology -
Alexander Malik Khaddouma
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
2/26/16 Psych Notes 2/26/16 Chapter 7: Memory Forgetting - Dementia o Severe memory loss o Often due to organic causes  Example: Alzheimer’s Disease  Clock Test Chapter 5: Consciousness - Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and mental perspectives - Zombie thought experiment o Question: If there was a second, identical version of you, would you act differently if your consciousness wasn’t present?  Example: Freaky Friday character switch – Personalities and individual consciousness switch Alterations in Consciousness 2/26/16 - Deviation from “normal” states of consciousness - Can be natural o Sleep o Daydreaming o Seiures - Can be induced o Drugs o Hypnosis o Meditation Sleep - Stage 1 o Reality perception decreases o Muscle twitches - Stage 2 o Slower brain activity with small bursts of activity - Stage 3 and 4 o 20%-50% of Sleep o Very deep sleep with little wake-ability o Children enter these stages more readily - Stage 5 o Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep o Brain activity that mimics wakefulness o Muscle paralysis (due to activity in locus coeruleus) o Eye and Ear Activity o Disjointed Dreams Dreaming - Freudian Dream Theory 2/26/16 o Dreams allow unconscious impulses and desires to arise to the surface of consciousness o Require interpretation to uncover meaning - Activation-Synthesis Theory o Brain stem experiences random neural activity which forebrain tries to integrate into a story - Neurocognitive Theory o Dreams are a product of cognitive activity that happens while sleeping o Explains why dream content tends to match age/experiences in the world Hypnosis - Uses suggestibility and trance states to alter thoughts, feelings, and behaviors - Can cause minor dissociation - People vary in ability to be hypnotized - Hypnosis CAN’T o Erase memories o Make people do things they don’t want to 2/24/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/22/16 Chapter 7: Memory Biology of Memory - Hippocampus o Storage unit o Relay station for motor neurons o Animals that migrate tend to have a larger hippocampus relative to their brain size o Touching Amygdala - Amygdala o Fight vs. Flight o Fear o Survival resources o “Danger center” Image: Amygdala and Hippocampus Brain Diagram *** The fact that the two are right next to each other, the two relate to one another o Part of the reason we remember bad events really well - Long-term Potentiation o “Things that wire together, fire together” o Gradual strengthening of the connection among neurons from repetitive stimulation Image: Biological Memory Process 2/24/16 Image: Performance Arousal Curve *** In order for our memory to work well, we have to be somewhere in the middle of the curve Errors in Memory - Information that deals with the amygdala (example: overwhelming/bad news), it relates to the actions of the hippocampus, affecting what happens with how our memories are stored - Our most recent memory “contaminates” our previous memories o Example: Eye witness testimonies and line-ups  We like to assume based on what information our most recent memories provide for us  Can cause many memory errors - Study o Asking people to watch a video of cars crashing o When asked to recall the memory two groups were asked two different questions:  How fast were the cars moving when they smashed into each other?  How fast were the cars moving when they bumped into each other?  The word choice affected the responses of the subjects, changing their assumptions and affecting their memory - Creating False Memories 2/24/16 o When someone tells you about a previous memory occurring, one that you don’t remember, you sometimes believe it actually happened.  Example Study – Hot-air Balloon  Subjects were told when they were little that they rode in a hot air balloon  The subjects don’t remember  The experimenter shows the subjects a photo shopped image of them in a hot-air balloon  The subject starts to believe the event to be true, even though it’s not - Culture Affects Memory o Cultures that have a particular word to describe an action/ a thing  Example: Language organization can affect how you react to a certain word Forgetting Memories - Amnesia o Loss of memory o Two Kinds:  Retrograde Amnesia  Loss of memory of past events  Anterograde Amnesia  Inability to encode new memories from current experiences o Inability to learn  Usually due to a severe illness to the brain or traumatic brain injury o Example: Head injury from car accident o Infantile Amnesia  Inability of all adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age  Most people’s earliest memories are at ages 4-5  When people claim to remember looking out a crib, it’s often a manufactured memory based off of what’s been told to them 2/22/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/22/16 Chapter 7: Memory - Relatively enduring retention of stored information regarding our facts, experiences, and skills Long-Term Memory - Explicit vs. Implicit - Permastore o Type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent - Often based on the meaning of the information, which helps it stick Types of Long-Term Memory - Explicit o Recalled with intention and effort o Two kinds:  Semantic  Knowledge of facts o Example: Capital of Tennessee  Episodic  Knowledge of events in our lives  Tends to last longer – Resistant to decay from memory o Example: First kiss - Implicit o Recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it o Two Kinds:  Procedural  How to do things o Example: Tie shoes, ride bike  Priming  Ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar stimulus 2/22/16 3 Processes of Memory - Methods for turning short-term memories to long-term memories - Types: o Encoding o Storage o Retrieval Encoding - Process of getting information into our memory banks - Requires focused attention on stimulus - Mnemonics help with encoding o Example: Algebra mnemonic – Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally – Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction Storage - Process of keeping information in memory - Schemas o Organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in our memory - o Example: Classifying mammals  Has hair/fur  Live birth  Warm-Blooded 2/22/16 Retrieval - Process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores - 3 Kinds: o Recall  Generating previously remembered information  Example: fill in the blank o Recognition  Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options  Most people have better recognition in comparison to recall  Example: Multiple Choice o Relearning  Reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned, but forgotten - Retrieval cues help with retrieval o Hints that make it easier to recall information - Context Dependent Learning o Better retrieval when in same environmental conditions as when information was learned - State Dependent Learning o Better retrieval when in same physiological or psychological state as when information was learned


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