Psych Chapters 4-7 Chapters
Psych Chapters 4-7 Chapters PSYC 110 - 008
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
2/26/16 Psych Notes 2/26/16 Chapter 7: Memory Forgetting - Dementia o Severe memory loss o Often due to organic causes Example: Alzheimer’s Disease Clock Test Chapter 5: Consciousness - Our subjective experience of the world, our bodies, and mental perspectives - Zombie thought experiment o Question: If there was a second, identical version of you, would you act differently if your consciousness wasn’t present? Example: Freaky Friday character switch – Personalities and individual consciousness switch Alterations in Consciousness 2/26/16 - Deviation from “normal” states of consciousness - Can be natural o Sleep o Daydreaming o Seiures - Can be induced o Drugs o Hypnosis o Meditation Sleep - Stage 1 o Reality perception decreases o Muscle twitches - Stage 2 o Slower brain activity with small bursts of activity - Stage 3 and 4 o 20%-50% of Sleep o Very deep sleep with little wake-ability o Children enter these stages more readily - Stage 5 o Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep o Brain activity that mimics wakefulness o Muscle paralysis (due to activity in locus coeruleus) o Eye and Ear Activity o Disjointed Dreams Dreaming - Freudian Dream Theory 2/26/16 o Dreams allow unconscious impulses and desires to arise to the surface of consciousness o Require interpretation to uncover meaning - Activation-Synthesis Theory o Brain stem experiences random neural activity which forebrain tries to integrate into a story - Neurocognitive Theory o Dreams are a product of cognitive activity that happens while sleeping o Explains why dream content tends to match age/experiences in the world Hypnosis - Uses suggestibility and trance states to alter thoughts, feelings, and behaviors - Can cause minor dissociation - People vary in ability to be hypnotized - Hypnosis CAN’T o Erase memories o Make people do things they don’t want to 2/24/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/22/16 Chapter 7: Memory Biology of Memory - Hippocampus o Storage unit o Relay station for motor neurons o Animals that migrate tend to have a larger hippocampus relative to their brain size o Touching Amygdala - Amygdala o Fight vs. Flight o Fear o Survival resources o “Danger center” Image: Amygdala and Hippocampus Brain Diagram *** The fact that the two are right next to each other, the two relate to one another o Part of the reason we remember bad events really well - Long-term Potentiation o “Things that wire together, fire together” o Gradual strengthening of the connection among neurons from repetitive stimulation Image: Biological Memory Process 2/24/16 Image: Performance Arousal Curve *** In order for our memory to work well, we have to be somewhere in the middle of the curve Errors in Memory - Information that deals with the amygdala (example: overwhelming/bad news), it relates to the actions of the hippocampus, affecting what happens with how our memories are stored - Our most recent memory “contaminates” our previous memories o Example: Eye witness testimonies and line-ups We like to assume based on what information our most recent memories provide for us Can cause many memory errors - Study o Asking people to watch a video of cars crashing o When asked to recall the memory two groups were asked two different questions: How fast were the cars moving when they smashed into each other? How fast were the cars moving when they bumped into each other? The word choice affected the responses of the subjects, changing their assumptions and affecting their memory - Creating False Memories 2/24/16 o When someone tells you about a previous memory occurring, one that you don’t remember, you sometimes believe it actually happened. Example Study – Hot-air Balloon Subjects were told when they were little that they rode in a hot air balloon The subjects don’t remember The experimenter shows the subjects a photo shopped image of them in a hot-air balloon The subject starts to believe the event to be true, even though it’s not - Culture Affects Memory o Cultures that have a particular word to describe an action/ a thing Example: Language organization can affect how you react to a certain word Forgetting Memories - Amnesia o Loss of memory o Two Kinds: Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory of past events Anterograde Amnesia Inability to encode new memories from current experiences o Inability to learn Usually due to a severe illness to the brain or traumatic brain injury o Example: Head injury from car accident o Infantile Amnesia Inability of all adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age Most people’s earliest memories are at ages 4-5 When people claim to remember looking out a crib, it’s often a manufactured memory based off of what’s been told to them 2/22/16 Psych 110 Notes 2/22/16 Chapter 7: Memory - Relatively enduring retention of stored information regarding our facts, experiences, and skills Long-Term Memory - Explicit vs. Implicit - Permastore o Type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent - Often based on the meaning of the information, which helps it stick Types of Long-Term Memory - Explicit o Recalled with intention and effort o Two kinds: Semantic Knowledge of facts o Example: Capital of Tennessee Episodic Knowledge of events in our lives Tends to last longer – Resistant to decay from memory o Example: First kiss - Implicit o Recalled without intention or effort, we don’t mean to remember it o Two Kinds: Procedural How to do things o Example: Tie shoes, ride bike Priming Ability to detect a stimulus more easily and quickly after encountering a similar stimulus 2/22/16 3 Processes of Memory - Methods for turning short-term memories to long-term memories - Types: o Encoding o Storage o Retrieval Encoding - Process of getting information into our memory banks - Requires focused attention on stimulus - Mnemonics help with encoding o Example: Algebra mnemonic – Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally – Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction Storage - Process of keeping information in memory - Schemas o Organized knowledge structure or mental model that we’ve stored in our memory - o Example: Classifying mammals Has hair/fur Live birth Warm-Blooded 2/22/16 Retrieval - Process of reactivating or reconstructing experiences from our memory stores - 3 Kinds: o Recall Generating previously remembered information Example: fill in the blank o Recognition Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options Most people have better recognition in comparison to recall Example: Multiple Choice o Relearning Reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned, but forgotten - Retrieval cues help with retrieval o Hints that make it easier to recall information - Context Dependent Learning o Better retrieval when in same environmental conditions as when information was learned - State Dependent Learning o Better retrieval when in same physiological or psychological state as when information was learned
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