One Week of Notes- Physical Anthropology
One Week of Notes- Physical Anthropology ANT 171
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margo Notetaker on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 171 at Central Michigan University taught by Kennedy, Jennifer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Hum Origins: Intro Phy Antro in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
83115 Introduction What is Anthropology The study of humans throughout time The study of humankind viewed from the perspective of all people from all times I Anthropos Greek word meaning quotmanquot or by extension human I Logo Greek word meaning quotstudy ofquot or quotscience ofquot I Culture A learned behavior including social system economic system marriage customs religion and philosophy Anything in a culture is transmitted via learning rather than instinct 1 Four fields of Anthropology Holistic approach Takes into account all aspects of existence to understand human variation and evolution 0 A holistic approach to anthropology includes all four major subfields linguistic biological cultural and archaeological Holistic approach is considered the fifth category of anthropology 1 Studies humans and primates in terms of the interactions between biology and culture in evolutionary adaptation 2 The study of cultures and societies of human beings and their very recent past Traditional cultural anthropologists study living cultures and present their observations in an ethnography Ethnography The scientific descriptions of the customs of individual peoples and cultures 3 The study of the past societies and their cultures especially the material remains of the past such as tools food remains bones and places where people lived The study of thelanguage especially how language is structured evolution of language and the social and cultural context for language 1 Biologicalphysical anthropology 4 I The study of human evolution and variation both past and current I Kinds of Biolo ical anthropolog gt the study of human remains and fossils gt the study of population health through physical characteristics such as height and weight gt similar to Paleontology this is the study of human remains as well evidence ie Coco the gorilla the study of genetics Forensic application 0 Identification of human remains o Maceration methods and their impact on DNA preservations 9 v What is Science I A way of discovering or getting to know something through analysis testing and research 1 Scientific method 1 identifying the problemphenomena based on some earlier observations or data 2 Formulate a A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation Testing the hypothesis collected data Further observation 4 Form a Rejection acceptance or modification of the final collected data 1 Science Facts Facts Hypotheses theories Confirmed observations ie verifiable truths explanations for observed facts before the experiment Sets of hypotheses that have been rejected Ways of knowing about our world ELReligion faith Observations and opinion perception Some questions to ask I Is it a fact I Is it just a Theory or hypothesis I Or some other way of knowing gt Society sees science as a just uncovered verifiable facts gt Scientists see science as theories and hypotheses 9215 The Origins of Evolutionary Theory Earth about 64 million years old Ussher Irish Archbishop james Ussher 1650 gt Determined that the earth was created on October 23rd 4004 BC gt Reverend Lightfoot later added that this occurred at 9am Most scholars were from the church O 90 I Most people went with these theories and were okay with them Geology s Contribution Deep Time Ideas of a deeper timetable Iames Hutton Among the first to study natural forces wind rain and calculate Earth s age in millions of years gt Published 1795 gt His idea is called Uniformitarianism o Things are uniformly gradually slowly changing at different times Thought of linear time Clocks and calendars Deep Time Charles Lyell gt Rediscovered Hutton s ideas by proposing nondirectional continuous constant and gradual change gt Published 18304833 Paleontology s contribution Robert Hooke Tested the idea that fossils were the remains of ancient life by studying the microscopic structure of wood George Cuvier Studied fossil anatomy pioneering the fields of paleontology and comparative anatomy gt Realized that the fossils are of animals and plants that no longer exist gt The theory that changes in the earth s crust during geological history have resulted chie y from sudden violent and unusual events I His example would be the great biblical ood Cuvier was very religious along with most of the world at that time therefore he greatly apposed the thought of evolutionism Taxonomy and Systematics Contribution Carl Von Linne Carolus Linnaeusl Developed genu and Loved naming and labeling gt No evolutionary inferences were made to derive the taxonomy gt He set up a way of classification Demography s Contribution Thomas Malthus An economist who noted the more individuals are born to most species than can possibly survive gt This theory came out just before the Industrial Revolution gt Population explosion in Europe Filled with the quotdirty poorquot Evolutionary Biology s Contribution leanBaptist Lamarck Speculated that animals change for the purpose of selfimprovement gt For example a giraffe s neck developed taller so that the animal could reach the taller trees for leaves I Biological need gt Animals change anatomically in response to new demands or needs and pass those new changes to their offspring The theory of Acquired characteristics were passed on to offspring is now known to be untrue o g If a mother cuts her left hand off then her future children will be born without a left hand NOT TRUE 9 v Darwin s Contribution In 1851 Charles Darwin went on his fiveyear voyage on the HMS Beagle As a naturalist he recorded and documented all the animals and plants he observed on the way I He looked at fossils and animals that had similar genes but lived on different islands I He even found the same species of ightless birds in on different continents Organisms adapted to their environment I E Galapagos Island Finches similar to South America 0 Slight differences due to changes in the environment 0 One tree contained four different species of finches Over time as species in a particular environment or niche became more successful adapted it would give rise to a related but new species from its ancestral state Speciation Event 1 Wallace Alfred Russell Wallace 18231913 A British naturalist explorer geographer and biologist gt Independently proposed a theory of evolution due to natural selection Herbert Spencer The father of Social Darwinism Spencer coined the term survival of the fittest after reading Charles Darwin s On The gt Thought that societies evolved just like organisms from barbarianism to civilized gt Darwin NEVER used Spencer s term gt The thought that white rich men were on top of society because they were meant to be and poor Africans on the bottom for the same reason 1 Mechanisms of Inheritance Darwin thought that inheritance was passed through the blending of traits I EiMom has a small nose and dad has a big nose then the child s nose will be medium size 339 Gregory Mendel gt German scientist specializing in genetics gt His work was rediscovered in the early 1900 s and showed that traits are passed on independently 3 Formation of Modern Synthesis gt Darwin s theory of evolution and Mendel s theory of heredity gt Allows us to ask questions about natural selection on conjunction with the other forces of evolution 3 The Evolution of Synthesis All evolutionary phenomena can be explained by known mechanisms causes and observational evidence gt We can figure out what changes in a geno and explain it Evolution is gradual small genetic changes caused by recombination ordered by natural selection Natural selection is the main mechanism of change The role of genetic drift id unclear gt No explanation of why fixation occurs The genetic diversity existing in natural populations is a key factor in evolution gt If the environment changes and we are all the same everyone could die Gradualism does N0T mean a constant rate of change 339 Misconceptions about Evolution 1 Bigger is N0T always better Larger sizes will require more energy and food to survive There has to be a balance 2 Newer is walways better Traits of recent origin are not necessarily any better than that of ancient origins Age of structure has no bearing on its usefulness 3 Natural selection does walways work We are more likely to go extinct than to adapt 4 There is N0T an inevitable direction to evolution it occurs randomly A discredited idea that evolution would continue in a givendirection because of some vaguely defined non physical force until a perfect structure is formed 5 There is m one true perfect form Fossils record rejects of Orthogenesis 6 Natural selection does m always produce perfect structures 7 All structures are E adaptive Many structures are a byproduct of other biological changes with no adaptive value of their own 8 Current structures do NOT always re ect initial adaptation Evidence That Supports the Theory of Evolution Opposition and Skepticism gt Scopes Monkey Trial in 1925 in Dayton Tennessee Formally called the High school biology teacher Iohn Scopes was accused of the states Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach evolution Opposin Theories Today Laws requiring the teaching of quotcreation sciencequot on equal time with evolution have been passed in Louisiana and Arkansas but were overturned Creation sciencequot is NOT a science and fails in all objective tests of the scientific method Similarly the intelligent design hypothesis has been disproven repeatedly Problems with Intelligent Design Certain structures found in nature are too complex to have been created through evolution and natural selection E The eye A mousetrap Bacterial Flagellum
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