Photosynthesis / Biofuels
Photosynthesis / Biofuels PBIO1030
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Steven Hernandez on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Plants and People in Biomedical Sciences at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Monday August 31 2015 PBIO Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Use light energy to synthesize organic compounds 0H Organic compounds store energy for the plant and other organisms to use Types of organisms that undergo photossthesis Some forms of bacteria Algae Lichen Plants Chemicals Needed for Photosynthesis Helmont and Cusanus 1600 s propose that water is the source of plant mass Experiment involved measuring the amount of water and earth compared to the growth of a plant Experiments over the next centuries demonstrated the involvement of light and air Air Water Sunlight Reaction for photosynthesis in plants eventually discovered van Neil identified this reaction through sulfur Realized water is not the only chemical that can be used in photosynthesis 6002 12H20 Light Energy pigments gtCBH1205 602 6H20 Photosynthesis in plants There must be water in the equation van Neil proposed this general equation for photosynthesis after studying photosynthesis in bacteria Eventually gave way to the conclusion that water is both necessary and essential in both the beginning and end of photosynthesis in plants Monday August 31 2015 Discovered that water is the source of oxygen as part of the water at the beginning of photosynthesis goes to glucose and another goes to oxygen How does this Affect Climate Greenhouse effect capturing of gasses within the Earth s atmosphere Greenhouse is good but humanity has exacerbated greenhouse effects Wednesday September 2 2015 PBIO Photosynthesis Part 2 Structures and Compounds in Photosynthesis Pigments substances that absorb light Chloroplasts Contain pigments membranes Water H20 electrons hydrogen for sugars Carbon Dioxide 002 converted to sugars Proteins cross membranes in chloroplasts drives ATP synthase Photons Energy Source Plants use certain waves of light of the visible light spectrum Plants usually use spectrums other than green light usually purpleish or redish Green light is reflected off and not absorbed therefore plants are almost always green Englemann s experiment exposed algae to different waves of light most grew in most places other than green Some plants reflect other colors depending on the pigments that they use OK so What s Happening Here Anyway Splitting water Photon of light hits chlorophyll a molecule which both excites a photon and splits water in to an oxygen molecule 02 four pairs of protons H and electrons e remember that water is the source for oxygen in photosynthesis Lightdependent reactions Inputs Photons of light water Wednesday September 2 2015 o Outputs Oxygen ATP NADPH Photon of light hits chlorophyll excites the photon hits the electron which is then replaced by water in order to create energetic compounds ATP and NADPH Lightindependent Reaction The Calvin Cycle Creates carbohydrates from Carbon dioxide Occurs in the chloroplasts Recycles the ATP and NADPH for use in the lightdependent reactions Inputs CO2 ATP NADPH Outputs C6H1206 Glucose ADP NADP recycled compounds keep in mind that even scientists don t completely know what all of the steps in the Calvin Cycle are so you don t have to go all out understanding this process The image below is a general understanding of carbon dioxide and water into glucose I Reduction 6 002 6 H20 gt CGH1206 6 02 I l H Oxidation 3 f 339 l 39u l J rr i 126 31 51139 r uga39vv r 39 U 39 39 Other Factors to Consider in the Process Problem with CO2 being absorbed for a plant Water loss Stomata the chemical and gas protector Open and close depending on environmental conditions in order to protect gases needed for photosynthesis Wednesday September 2 2015 Simultaneously when closed stomata can keep 002 from entering the plant and keep it from growing Therefore stomata close at specific moments ie nighttime in order to satisfy both ends of the problem Rubisco enzyme that helps create sugars 0an bind oxygen instead of carbon dioxide when stomata close no new 002 Other ways to cope wit the problem 0AM separates sugar and oxygen production by 0actuses 04 separates sugar and oxygen production by space Pineapples Friday September 4 2015 PBIO Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration The Relationship Plants do both Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Photosynthesis and Respiration Cycle chloroplast 3hotosyntquotcsisJ i a mitochondrion Plants can produce their own Carbon Dioxide Cellular respiration uses stored energy in carbohydrates to do work Usually plant photosynthesis creates more photosynthates than they need for respiration casing them to grow Friday September 4 2015 Biofuels Plants can be burned through combustion which releases stored carbon dioxide more quickly Both metabolism and combustion return carbon dioxide to the atmosphere Every organism goes through metabolism ls combustion of biofuels considered green Not necessarily Sorghum can be used as food and fuel Leftover stalk after harvest used for biofuel 20 of sorghum currently used The USDA reports that sett sorghum ethanol will produce 1216 Btus of energy compared to 1318 of corn Sorghum is a First Generation Fuel fuels that are made from foodcrops things that can be eaten Second Generation Fuel fuels that are made from nonfood crops technology is needed to extract fuel from crop Switchgrass in an example of a second generation which is something that humans do not eat Group Activity If We Could Switch to Biofuels Advantages Can be renewable quicker production rate chapter than fossil fuels create jobs Friday September 4 2015 Disadvantages Create greenhouse gasses Can deplete food stores Cost of machinery to create biofuels culturally and economically switch to biofuels would be difficult Need of land to grow fossil fuels Use of many different biofuels instead of having one or few common fuels Remember that there are several bits of information for and against biofuels it is easy to be biased Extra Third Generation Fuels Fuels that need use algae these are more difficult to harvest the energy out of since you need both large amounts of space and several pieces of advanced technology Fourth Generation Fuels Fuels completely synthesized by man
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