Week of 8/31-9/4
Week of 8/31-9/4 ANTH 161 001
Popular in Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Miller on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. De La Cova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Human Origins: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
A161 Notes Week 83194 09052015 Darwin Continued o Wealthy country squire contact with animal breeders Distinctness of individuals In uences on Darwin Galapagos Finches o 600 miles West of Ecuador 0 1 basic type of with many different beaks 0 did they all come from one type Realized that some species are distinct others less so 0 If each species had an ideal GCB how can animals vary regularly overspace Theory of Natural Selection Sept 28 1838 0 Observations 0 Variation In the struggle to be one of the few that survive Individuals with Minute changes each generation can add up 0 In the struggle for existence some are born Natural Selection ls based on Darwin s conclusion that individuals with When the Darwin s Postulates There is a There is is presentamp Natural Selection Peppered Moth amp Industrial Melanin Popular ex Of natural selection involves indigenous to Great Britain In 1848 a naturalist near Manchester discovered 0 Frequency of carbonaria dark remained low climbed rapidly in late 19th c England 0 Trees lichen covered moths light grey speckled urban trees sootcovered lichens dead 0 dark over nonmelanic light was the selecting factor Advantageous genetic variants quickly increase in a population 0 Today melanic variety is in decline amp has dropped to 10 of population 0 Pollution laws Natural Selection amp the Giraffe Longer necked giraffes had selective advantage because 0 Their offspring would have a larger proportion of individuals with longernecks Darwin vs Lamarck Natural Selection vs Inheritance of acquired characteristics 0 IAC Lamarck NS Darwin Understanding Darwin No rush to publish Took o 1841 could work quotan hour or two a couple days a weekquot 0 1851 o Respectability 0 Evolution subversive o Concern about wife Emma who grieved for his soul amp daughter Annie 0 Made money from railroadland stocks investment not from books Lyell gently pushing Wallace o Wrote to Darwin 0 July 1 1858 On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties amp on the Perpetuation of Varieties amp Species by Natural Means of Selection Read but little reaction On the Origin of Species 0 Accepted o Darwinism triumphed Natural Selection explained how Species change through time DarwinWallace did Thursday 93 Concepts of inheritance during Darwin s lifetime 0 Examples in breeding o Exceptions biological sex 0 Father of modern genetics research would provide the mechanism for natural selection de ning what Darwin couldn t O Principles of the inheritance of traits Spent 8 years amp grew 28000 plants of each trait is for each trait in an individual but can 0 An individual Furthermore 0 Some traits o No one listened at the time 0 Soon after publishing he was called to head monastery amp never did research again Mendel s Pea Plants Mendel examined the patterns of inheritance of numerous traits found in pea plants 1 he looked at these are of a particular trait EX plants with yellow or green colored pods When he crossed a parental yellow pod plant with a parental green pod plant the next generation of plants were all green 0 Was the yellow color gone forever When he crossed a green pod plant from the F1 generation with another green pod plant from the same generation he found the next generation had BOTH green amp yellow pod plants 0 But 3x as many green as yellow plants the variants with each other but remained 0 what could explain this o Traits are inherited as discrete units 0 Units that occur 0 Units that occur E traits o It segregates separates out Mendel realized If variant was over other it would be expressed even if the Idea inherited only If variant was it required for it to be expressed For example 0 If the recessive particle for pod color yellow is abbreviated y amp the dominant particle for pod color green is abbreviated Y we can visualize the 2 generations of crosses o Trait that is expressed amp simultaneously masks another trait if it is present 0 Expressed in an organism if 2 copies are present but masked if dominant trait present o Ignored until 1900 when 3 scientists working independently discovered Mendel s work amp independently discovered Mendel s work amp replicated it with different species of plants Results were re ection of the behavior of o The production of gametes or sex cells 0 Physical quotunitsquot responsible for attributes are located in sex cells r 0 Combination of alleles that an individual possesses o Observable characteristics in uenced by genotype amp environment 0 When 2 alleles are the same 0 When 2 alleles are different Rediscovery of Mendel 0 genes transmitted from parents offspring in ratios id ed by Mendel won Nobel prize 1933 Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA Chemical that makes up o hundreds of different genes Genetic Variation 0 Each gene has a locus location on a chromosome 0 Different versions of the same gene at the same loci o 1 to 20 different alleles Genotypes amp Phenotypes The combo of alleles for a particular gene o Chemically identical alleles at a single locus Aa 0 Some alleles are 0 Some alleles are For a recessive to be expressed there must be 2 copies Some alleles o Equally dominant both expressed 0 AB blood type Codominance o 1 genetic trait with different alleles o ABABampO o 00 AO BO AA BB amp AB o 1 from each parent Complexity of genetics 0 quotone gene one proteinquot model 0 many traits are 0 determined by multiple genes Polygenic Inheritance 0 skin color 36 genes 0 Have a nucleus amp organelles DNA in O prokaryotes is not membrane bound 0 2 types of cells 0 body bone muscle skin organs 0 sex sperm ova