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# CHEM 141 Week 1 CHMY 141N - 00

UM

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHMY 141N - 00 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Montana.

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Date Created: 09/05/15

Week 1 Chemistry 141 Lecture Notes Lessons 13 Pease note that these lessons came from General Chemistry An Inquiry Approach Lesson 1 How do Scientists Use Algebra and Reason to Calculate Overview This lesson explains the importance of quantity algebra and proportionalities in science Quantity algebra is a way of taking a quantity and separating it into the value and unit This allows for dimensional analysis to take place and unit cancelation If we want to go from one unit to another we use quantity algebra and conversion factors The importance of always including units when doing quantity algebra is that we are able to cancel out units as we go to ensure we arrive at the desired units Vocabulary to know 0 Direct proportionality when both variable being measured are directly proportional o xolty o Inverse proportionality when two variables are inversely proportional o xolt1y 0 Multiple proportionality when two variables are proportional to another variable 0 xoltygtlltz 0 Quantity Algebra a strategy involving the act of separating value and unit of a quantity and using this to algebraically cancel units Proportionalities 0 Direct 0 The amount of time driving and the total distanced traveled would be an example of a direct proportionality because the more time you spend driving the further you would have traveled o A graph of a direct proportionality will always be linear o Inverse o A person s level of hunger as they eat would be an example of an inverse proportionality because the more someone eats the less hungry they would become 0 A graph of an inverse proportionality will be a curved line 0 Multiple o How t someone is and how often they eat healthy and excersize would be an example of a multiple proportionality because the more a person excersizes and the more often they eat healthy the more t they would be Quantity Algebra 0 Take a quantity and separate it into a numerical value unit 0 156 grams156grams This is useful to be able to cancel units 0 Begin by identifying the given quantity and what the unit of the wanted quantity is you will want to check at the end to make sure the unit you got matched with the wanted unit 0 Next multiple the given quantity by at least one conversion factor depending on the problem to alter the given unit to the wanted unit Conversion factors are ratios that show the equivalency between different units 0 Finally make sure to check the answer you got to ensure that it makes sense within the context of the problem Lesson 2 How do Scientists Express Ratios and Measured Quantities Overview The main focus of this lesson is to demonstrate the idea that ratios can be expressed as fractions fractions can be turned into decimals and decimals can be turned into percentages By changing one to another can be a very useful strategy when trying to solve certain problems This lesson also introduces the metric system and the use of pre xes which can be set up as ratios and used as conversion factors Vocabulary Weight the measure of the amount of force pushing upon an object in the gravitational eld 0 Mass the measure of the resistance of an object to alter in a state of motion Weight and mass are often used interchangeably when talking about objects on Earth because the weight and mass of an object are the same on Earth 0 Kilogram a metric unit for mass which is equal to the weight of a liter of water 0 Temperature the measure of the hotness of an object Celsius temperature scale a temperature scale where 0 degrees is the temperature at which water freezes and 100 degrees is the temperature at which water boils Metric Pre xes the highlighted pre xes need to be memorized Large Units Small Units Pre x Symbol Multiple Pre x Symbol Multiple Tera T 1012 Unit wo 100 pre x Giga G 109 Deci d 10 1 Mega M 106 I 10 2 I 103 I 10 3 Hecto h 102 I 10 6 Deca da 101 I 10 9 Unit wo 10 Pico p 10 12 pre x Parts per million ppm and parts per billion ppb are sometimes used if the ratio is really small To express ppm multiply by 106 To express ppb multiply by 109 o 1 liter 1 cubic decimeter o 1 milliliter 1 cubic centimeter Lesson 3 What is Science Overview This process of scienti c method is investigated as well as how scientists create new theories This lesson also explores the relationship between pressure and volume area and temperature Vocabulary Casual hypothesis A proposed explanation for some pattern that was found in nature 0 Force push or pull on an object 0 Kelvin measurement of temperature that reaches absolute zero 27315 degree C equals 0 K 0 Pressure Force per unit Scienti c Method 0 Have a question about something in the natural world 0 Take measurements 0 Try to discover a pattern 0 Create a casual hypothesis that could explain the pattern 0 Test the casual hypothesis using an experiment Volume and Pressure of a Gas 0 Pressure and volume are inversely proportional if the temperature is constant This relationship was discovered by Boyle o Polt1V is Boyle s Law o It is important to know that force and pressure are directly proportional and that area and pressure are inversely proportional o PocF o Polt1A o PEFA the triple line is used because this is the de nition of pressure Volume and Temperature of a Gas 0 Linear but not directly proportional When this relationship is graphed all of the lines for all gasses intersect the x axis at 27315 C This must be the absolute 0 for temperature because a gas cannot have negative volume This discovery resulted in the creation of the Kelvin temperature scale where 0 K is 27315 C When using the Kelvin scale the relationship becomes directly proportional This was discovered by Charles 0 VoltT T in kelvins is Charles s Law Pressure Volume and Temperature of a Gas Charles s Law about the relationship between volume and temperature of a gas can be combined with Boyle s Law about the relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas 0 VT1P is the Combined Gas Law VkT1P k is a constant PVTk I P1V1k P2V2Z T1 T2 Note that all equations can be manipulated to get a certain variable isolated

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