Cardiovascular Review Notes- Week 1
Cardiovascular Review Notes- Week 1 EXSC 530 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Lopez on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 530 001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Chen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see The Physiology of Muscular Activity in Physical Education at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM BASICS Related Chapters in required text Chapter 9 A Cardiovascular System Components a Heart 9 pump that creates pressure to distribute blood Arteries and arterioles 9 carry blood away from the heart eg aorta Capillaries 9 responsible for the exchange of 02 C02 and other nutrients Veins and venules 9 carry blood to the heart eg superiorinferior vena cava Pulmonary circuit 9 pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs and returns oxygenated blood to heart f Systemic circuit 9 pumps oxygenated blood to body and returns deoxygenated blood to heart B Cardiovascular System Functions a Transports 02 hormones and other nutrients to tissues in the body b Removes C02 and other wastes from tissues in the body c AcidBase Balance 9 body needs a specific balance of acidic and basic compounds d Thermoregulation DP9939 THE CARDIOVACSCULAR SYSTEM A The Heart a Macro anatomy 0 Four chambers LA RA LV RV b Microanatomy o Epicardium I Also known as the visceral pericardium I A well lubricated layer on the outside of the heart for protection I Composed mostly of connective tissue 0 Myocardium I Makes up the muscle of the heart I Composed of cardiac muscle cells that are connected by intercalated discs 0 This allows the heart to contract as a whole or not at all I Cardiac Muscle vs Skeletal Muscle Review Characteristics Cardiac Muscle Skeletal Muscle Actin and Myosin Yes Yes Shape of Fiber Shorter branching Elongated no branching Nuclei Single Multiple Zdiscs Yes Yes Cellular Junction Yes No Striated Yes Yes Connective Tissue Endomysium Epi Peri and Endomysium o Endocardium Innermost layer of tissue lining the heart Functions as a protective inner layer of the chambers and valves of the heart Composed of mostly endothelial cells and a layer of elastic fibers 0 Blood Supply Known as coronary circulation The aorta then splits to serve the right and left coronary arteries 0 Right coronary artery 9 blood supply to right side of heart 0 Left Main coronary artery 9 blood supply to left side of heart Diseases 0 Atherosclerosis 9 plaque buildup in arteries i Buildup leads to narrowing of the arteries decreasing blood flow to your heart B Blood Vessels Circulation of the Body a Arteries 0 Main function is to carry blood away from the heart 0 Consists of layers of connective tissue and smooth muscle 0 Large in diameter near the heart and get smaller as they branch Eventually branch into arterioles and then capillaries o Consist of elastic and muscular arteries 0 Arterial System b Capillaries Vessels containing high pressure while delivering oxygenrich blood to tissues Blood is pumped from left ventricle to the aorta and distributed throughout the body Capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilation o Vasoconstriction 9 narrowing of blood vessel 0 Vasodilation 9 widening of blood vessel 0 When smooth muscle in the vessel walls constricts or relaxes blood flow to upper and lower extremities is regulated This is NOT where gas exchange occurs 0 Form at the end of metarterioles 0 Contain 6 of the blood volume 0 Consists of a single layer of endothelial cells rolled up 0 Some so narrow they only allow one blood cell to pass at a time o Precapillary Sphincter A ring of smooth muscle circling the capillary and controlling its diameter Contraction and relaxation provide the regulation for blood flow Two factors triggering relaxation c Veins d Blood 0 0 Driving force of increased local blood pressure intrinsic neural control Local metabolites produced in exercise 0 Main function is to carry blood towards the heart 0 From capillaries merge into small venules small veins then larger veins Capillary beds 9 small venules 9 small veins 9 larger veins 0 Capable of altering venous return due to sympathetic stimulation 0 Venous Return Valves are present within veins allowing blood to flow in only one directiontowards the heart 0 Expecting blood to be low in 02 and high in C02 Small muscular contractions and minor pressure changes within the thoracic cavity breathing readily compress veins increasing venous return Alternating with contraction and relaxation creates a quotmilkingquot action propelling blood back up to the heart 0 Valves 0 o o 0 Functions Transport 02 nutrients and waste Thermoregulation Acidbase balance 0 Average male has 56L of blood Average female has 45L of blood 0 Composed of plasma and formed elements 0 Characteristics Plasma Valves are needed or blood would become stagnate still not moving Individuals would faint every time they stood up due to reduced venous return Prevent backflow of blood Do not hinder normal oneway flow Blood moves through by action of nearby active muscle OR contraction of smooth muscle About 60 percent of blood volume Liquid part of blood Made up of nutrients ions proteins hormones About 40 percent of blood volume Red Blood Cells RBCs i Contain hemoglobin carries oxygen 0 White Blood Cells WBCs i Major role is preventing infection to body 0 Platelets i Major role in clotting I Hematocrit o The percentage of blood composed of cells 0 Blood Viscosity I Defined as the thickness of blood I Twice as viscous as water I Viscosity will rise as hematocrit rises I Plasma volume will increase and RBCs increase 0 This occurs in athletes after training 9 acclimation o Hematocrit and viscosity will remain stable during this or 02 transport can suffer
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