PSY 100, Week One Lecture Notes
PSY 100, Week One Lecture Notes PSY 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Larson on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Johnson, Carl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Psychology PSY 100 Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Day 1 Psychology summarized Is a study that is based on processes of not only behavior but also the way the brain functions mentally Psychologists have different goals The first is to understand The second is to explain often the unknown or misunderstood The third is to predict humans aren t always good at this An example of this is weather reports Tomorrow may be accurate as well as the day after But a week ahead or even a month gets sketchy The fourth and final example is control behavior This is included in a safe way not psychotic They want to help develop behavior to stop murder or violence not to create a zombie army Points to be known Not everyone will ever agree one so called quotfactquot is correct in any given group or at any given time It depends on the situation Research depends on one important factor correct measurement Science has developed over time to become a history an example of this is how an MRI can understand schizophrenia Just because there is a pattern or similarities in something does not prove the cause of the occurrence Changes within individuals are shown in heredity from ones genetic makeup and learned behavior from ones environment The best way to predict another s behavior however is to use a combination of both Psychology has many proclamations yet some have stronger evidence to prove their theories then others and there will always be more to learn about each of these theories Empirical also known as objective data is how data is collected to make unbiased theories Free will vs Determination which is true or are both Free will is what many people believe causes us to make our own choices By our own decisions and choices in life Determination is every choice has a reaction and this reaction causes change in our world in some way It s basically a physics or chemistry concept An example of this is Einstein s theory of relativity Big Problems 0 Nature Nurture is a theory that most students have heard about It is heredity vs the environment A simpler explanation of this is comparing how others react based on either their genetics or by their learned behavior An example of how genetics may not always be accurate is when twins are in the womb one may be getting more nutrients than the other Most people are made up a combination of both but how much of each Evolving Science and us 0 Humans have an amazing ability to evolve We change quickly and efficiently and spread to all corners of the world This allows us to create amazing things as well as create more challenges to our own survival as a consequence 0 There will never be a simple answer but psychologists work to help find understanding in the mind and how it works It also shows us ways to change ourselves when it will benefit us Science physics and the amazing theories of early science o It is a study focused on variables in which there is a connection between them Examples of this are shown in chemistry Such as when a gas turns to a liquid or a liquid to a solid 0 The different subjects within the sciences developed at different rates First there was physics it s hundreds of years old and in the beginning measured things like gravity This experiment was done by Galliao when he dropped balls made of different materials which caused them to have different weights off of the leaning tower of Pisa This showed that speed is a separate calculation then mass they are independent of each other 0 Before science was what it is today they had this amazing theory of why objects accelerated toward the ground like in Galliao s experiment Objects that fall to the ground get happy to see their Mother Earth again so they speed up in order to reach her faster They become jubilant 0 After physics came biology the study of life and finally psychology Psychology came later on because the human mind is so complex it is harder to understand and does not always have clear facts associated to it Chemistry and Biology early on 0 Chemistry began with alchemy and alchemy was based on a very elementary theory If they like each other bam They get together If they don t then they refuse to combine 0 Biology studies how life functions and its relationships with everything else around it such as its genetics environment and other creatures 0 Evolution was a theory developed by Darwin 0 Biochemistry was one of the first compound subjects to apply to real life Psychology and its origins 0 Everyone has different beliefs This is shown in psychology in that many people don t believe in it William James is the father of psychology around 1890He had a theory of what emotion was and what it stemmed from 0 Here is his example on his theory on emotion A group of men are traveling through a forest in New England hunting They happen to find a bear that terrifies them they all scatter off in different directions running for their lives They regroup later on and try to find what their fear stemmed from did the fear make the men run or did running create the fear In other words did their behavior control their actions or vice versa 0 Now let s reflect on this story Look at the big picture the bear caused the fear By only looking internally no one could see the larger picture The Science of Psychology 0 Science is constantly evolving to add in new evidence or to add in new theories that expand on the old 0 Mental masturbation This is an interesting phrase to refer to circular reasoning something that defends one fact with another then refers back to the original fact to defend its self Ex I am stupid so I don t study Why don t you try to study though Because I m stupid You may learn though But I don t study Est Dav 2 0 Science came from the Latin work scientia also known as knowledge It is developed to allow accurate information about the way others act and how they think 0 Clinical psych is a field that is changing drastically it is becoming more scientific and develops on how humans think and behave An example of this is predicting a football Scientists can explain exactly why a football landed where it did but there are too many variables such as wind the players mental psych est Theories Scientists and big words 0 Now anything can be proven or disproven in some way shape or form Proving something is 100 true is nearly impossible So we like to stick with what is most likely true instead by using theories 0 A theory is something that can be watched and have some form of it controlled while the other can show the results A theory that is very precise and has continually similar results is the best 0 Going by this explanation Darwin s theory of evolution see that key word THEORY is also just a best guess It could still be proven wrong it s just the best reasoning so far so we treat it as a fact 0 Froid is a scientist that studied and made theories on dreams Today most of his theories have been proven wrong but what matters is that he created a basis for most of the continued research that is happening even today It s like comparing the Wright Brothers to NASAs Space ships Without it nothing would have gotten the wheels spinning in other people s heads in order to inspire the more advanced version o Falsifiability suggest using a dictionary if you don t know the exact definition Has very exact predictions that are easy to back up with evidence to prove or disprove a theory 0 Parsimony also dictionary This is just the most simple way to do things It s the best way to go about anything in life including making a hypothesis Let s say you re planning a trip to Grand Rapids from Mount Pleasant Do you go down to Florida and then across the sea to go around the world or program your GPS to the fastest track there Simple is better Scientific Theory the heart of science 0 These are proven by finding support or evidence against the hypothesis also known as a claim in which the experiments are put into previously set conditions in order to be tested 0 This is done in order to understand what is happening and it either proves or allows evidence to drop the hypothesis or modify it 0 Steps Find a hypothesis test it then either find evidence to support it and make the original hypothesis stronger or find evidence against it that allows it to be revisited on whether it s worth continuing with changes or dropping the project 0 Another factor involved in a hypothesis is repeating the experiment under different conditions different lab scientists genders involved age to test how solid the theory is This is why all experiments have such detailed notes that are reported and why in science classes students are expected to follow so many exact steps The Unknown Mind Readers EST 0 Sometimes we all have moments of d ja vu things add up and it just seems impossible to be a coincidence Anecdotal evidence is when we use things that have personally happened to us to prove our own conviction that something supernatural is occurring 0 ESP for instance psychologists are always skeptical of this because we all tend to forget our failures A hypothesis needs to be retested and have sound results For the one dream that came true how many dreams before that didn t Most of us couldn t answer that because we don t remember most of our dreams Our hunches tend to overpower our logic at times and allow us to forget our failures Ways to research and terms involved 0 Populations this is the large area ex USA that must be made smaller This is done by creating samples A sample is a randomly selected group that represents the whole ex 600 from one state would be a decent sized sample 0 Representative sample uses a percent of the population that s random to represent everyone Different areas have different people so it is difficult to get an accurate one Random sample every single person has an equal chance of being chosen Usually these are correct but many are totally off Some people don t have a phone or email How are those represented 0 Every method has its pros and cons and there are many to choose from Naturalistic observations what things do in their natural habitat of course while being unaware they are being observed Ex People in Mount Pleasant were observed to see if they wore a seat belt Uptown wore the least amount on campus the most and the averages were higher than most other places in the USA recounted these estimates from memory I apologize if they are off Case study an example is going to the zoo None of the animals are in their own habitat So their behavior can t be exactly correct They are being observed like in the naturalistic observations but something is off People who are miracles o Phinease Gage he got a pole through his head and lived This allowed scientists to study the effect this had on his prefrontal cortex but this experiment can t exactly be repeated to show clear results on if this would happen to everyone else 0 James Braidy received a bullet through his head He lived as well but again this is hard to repeat Surveys 0 Are taken in order to find out how people react or feel about a certain question It reflects their beliefs or attitudes 0 Ex Albery Kinsey did a survey on sexual preference in a university in 1948 Many of his numbers were misunderstood such as a question involving whether or not any of the students have participated in homosexual acts 10 had tried it didn t mean that they were though Similar to this is girls claimed to rarely or never have sex while guys claimed to have it several times a week Which was true This happened in 1948 so the survey was judged harshly and misunderstood 0 There were some concerns involving surveys such as people not being honest having the question being misunderstood or worded wrong having the surveyor be biased and doing different things then what they actually do Correlations 0 Correlation studies show the relationships between different variables Both are out of the scientist s control An example of that is height and weight 0 The correlation coefficient is shows how strong the relationship between the two variables 0 These two things don t always cause each other o The results from these correlations range from 1 to 1 The closer to 1 or 1 it is stronger A 0 means there is no correlation A negative correlation means only one increases while the other decreases and a positive means they both go the same direction 0 has no correlation 0 Which is a stronger correlation 2 or 7 The answer is 7 even though it s a negative number it still is larger so it has a stronger reaction to each other 0 The two variables don t cause each other though Experiments 0 The variable that changes is independent 0 The variable that measures the behavior is the dependent 0 One must always be controlled while the other can be watched by scientists to see how it changes and be measured
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