Environmental Studies 3: Week 7 Notes
Environmental Studies 3: Week 7 Notes
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Date Created: 05/15/14
Week 7 May 13quot 2014 Political Economy and the Global Environment Major IDs Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Karl Marx Walkin Music Animas Pink Floyd 1977 Thomas Malthus Countered Smith39s optimism Born into upper class family trained to be a minister Became a political economist England was place to study for political economics o Quicklyindustrializing o Population growing Pioneer of modern population theory Thought world needed to limit population growth Didn39t think people would be abstinent or use birth control to limit births Saw vicious cycle of population growth eventually outrunning food supply o Leading to famine death o Opposing view of Smith39s view of sharing prosperity Robert Heilbroner Wrote about Malthus in Worldly Philosophers An Essay on the Principle of Population Book where Malthus wrote down all of his views Doubhng Malthus said because of population doubling food supply couldn39t keep up with modern expansion Poverty Poor will become poorer o Resources will become too expensive for them to afford Thomas Carlyle Read Mathus s essays Called economics quotthe dismal science ID Scale quotHow big can the economy get before it uses all its resources Is it sustainable Malthus thought people were living beyond their sustainable means According to Malthus economies can get too big and populations too large Applied Technology Fertilizer pesticides etc have increased food supply Delayed Mathus s predictions Birth control Slowed down population doubling Delayed Mathus s predictions ZPG zero population growth movement Started by Paul Ehrlich Malthusian Think we39re living past our means David Ricardo Asks quotWho gets what in a capitalist society Questioned optimism of Adam Smith Good investor Workers capitalists landlords Thought capitalism would not benefit everyone equally Capitalism does not distribute everything equally Workers capitalists andords basic groups of capitalism Calls capitalism a quotjungle of avarice greedy The Escalator Supposedly every person rises through class equally Ricardo says the poor crank the elevator Capitalists fight in the escalator for better position Landlords smoothly rise to the top Sheep dogs and pigs From Orwe s Animal Farm Variation of workers capitalists and landlords Sheep workers always expendable o Paid in wages o Wages go up and down Dogs capitalists o Hire workers to work in factories o Make profits o Use profits to buy more workers increase economic assets o In constant competition with other dogs to take out competition make more profits o Success depends on health of economy o Paid in profits Pigs o Skim money right off the top o Doesn39t matter how the economy is doing o Paid in rent o Rent isn t affected by economy o Make the best living off the work of others Rent wages profit ID The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation 1817 Where Ricardo wrote down his ideas Corn Laws Tariffs protecting English grain Importing grain was cheaper Gov t made tariff to make foreign grain more expensive than English grain Distribution Ricardo believed landlords did not feel quotinvisible hand Profit Maximization Objectifying the Earth for larger profits Crucial for competitive businesses How o Lower wages o Lower standards regulations worker safety insurance etc o Reduce environmental safeguards Karl Marx Strict economic determinist Grew up in feudal central Europe Prussia AustroHungarian Empire Place of birth Had absolute rulers forms of feudalism 97 peasants 3 nobility and others Area began to industrialize Need to educate peasants to get them to work industrially Led to revolutions 1848 Revolutions Against monarchy and merchant classes in Central Europe Threatened old social structure Georg Hegel Influenced Marx Came up with theory of dialectical materialism ID o Sweetening complete progressive change Fredrich Engels Marx39s writing partner Communist Manifesto 1848 Written by Marx and Engels Said history would eventually favor the working classes 97 would overthrow the 3 Caused them to be banished from Europe after 1848 revolutions Moved to New York and kept writing Das Kapital Three volumes from 18671894 Hunter gatherers v farmers Struggle of opposites Farmers eventually won First struggle Farmers v Merchants Merchants become dominant after Columbus Farmer culture fades out Merchants win Merchants v capitalists bourgeoisie Happening during time of writing Capitalists are winning Bourgeoisie v proletariat workers Last struggle Happening in middle 1800s Said workers of the world will eventually triumph Will happen after years of conflict and war Will be end of history Socialist Utopia Will happen when workers control the world No struggle everything is fine and taken care of No need for gov t royalty money authority title 1 Russian Revolution 1904 After last Das Kapital was published Educated Russian peasants 1917 Revolution Created Marxist Soviet Union Resource valuation Resources have no value unless improved by humans Environmentalists say resources are important while not in use Economic determination Eventually workers are going to get everything Looking at things through who s going to get what May 15 2014 Environmental Responses to Industrilization IDs Iron Horse Luddism Early Environmentalism Walk in Music quotEine kleine Nachtmusik W A Mozart It s a Tough Old World When Herbert Spencer was asked about industrial effects on the environment he said quotit39s a tough old world it can handle it Iron Horse What Native Americans called trains The first big business Railroads Had lots of employees diversified outputs Transportation Revolution Very few roads in Europe hard to get around Improvement of waterways easier to transport things by water Stagecoaches Railroads took it to new level Could carry literally tons of cargo and people First built in UK Used steam power to power locomotives First appeared in 1820 in Britain Replaced water transportation as main form of transportation Fastest form of mass transportation Spinoff Industries Ex iron and steel industry Used to build trains and railroads Grew with the railroads but were separate companies Also a need for precision machinery for accurately repairing trains Bessemer Process Blowing air through molten pig iron Greatly reduced impurities created steel Used for trains London Smog Coal smoke in London People would breathe it in and die from infection Led to awful air pollution problems Environmental externality Profit maximization Involved tracking all money flowing in and out of the railroads Constantly trying to approve efficiency First time a business paid that much attention to profit Hierarchical Management Different classes of employees managers Railroads were the first to do this Used in corporations today Time zones Created by railroads Were crossing them constantly Stocks and bonds Railroads started selling securities to generate more profit Railroads literally invented Wall Street and the modern stock market The Great Resource Gobbler Railroads need fast quantities of wood iron and coal Never been used in such vast quantities in the history of the world Transatlantic Transference All facets of railroad industry transferred from Britain to US Luddism Luddites were English workers who broke textile machines because they felt threatened that they would be replaced by them Weavers stockingers and croppers Skilled workers thought they had security Made cloth for textile industry Against the Machine About Luddites For Luddites Ricardo s model meant capitalism was against them Textile industry was hit hard by famine lack of resources Corn laws made it harder to sell British goods abroad hit textile industry especially hard Plant managers increased profits by using machines in factories Capitalists cut the wages of skilled and unskilled workers Luddite Rebellion Response to wage cutting in textile industry Ned or King Ludd D leader of Luddite Rebellion o May be legend existence is uncertain Nottingham Where the first rebellion took place Men broke into a lace factory at night started smashing machines with sludge hammer Machine Breaking Began happening more often Attracted other people from other industries for rebellion o Argued they would soon be replaced by machines too Managers hired armed guards spies Had the gov t passed laws making machine breaking punishable by death Managers won successfully infiltrated the movement Some were executed Luddites were put down Modern Luddism Elements of Luddism in environmentalism Aversion to modernity ID o The old ways are better Liking the natural world better than the human developed world Touches on issues like genetically engineered food Fear of the machine Fear of becoming obsolete because of technology Technology is becoming more and more prevalent in our lives Fear of capitalism Uncontrolled capitalism Environmental movement says gov t and business are quotunholy alliance destroying the environment o Worried about globalization Anti big government Early Environmentalism Response to the industrial revolution Intellectuals in rapidly industrializing Northern European cities thought civilization was advancing too quickly The Romantics What these people called themselves Looked at natural world of Greco Roman times Preferred it to modern times Wrote romantically about it Thought the world was losing open space wildness Primitivism Savages were better than civilized people lived closer to nature Written on by Jean Jacques Rousseau Found audience in highly urbanized areas Transcendentalism American primitivism Founded by Emerson Talked about sef improvement being an individual Staying away from mainstream thought Staying close to nature Greed and avarice are worst enemies Margaret Fuller o Could overcome this through Transcendentalism closeness to nature Thoreau was another founder Talked about need of simplicity in life Preservation Movement Arose from Transcendentalism About preserving as much wild land as possible Spiritual side of environmentalism Conservation Movement Scientific side of environmentalism Thought industrialization might lead to environmental problems Might destroy human race other species Ex near extinction of American buffalo Worried about resource depletion o Running out of coal forests Worried about water pollution George Perkins Marsh called humans quotthe new glaciers o We could change the planet irreparably if we keep on our path Gifford Pinchot Thought gov t s role in environmentalism was crucial Proponent of idea of world conservation John Muir Wrote about need to preserve nature in its natural state