Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes CRJ 225
Popular in Intro to Criminology
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tova raymond on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRJ 225 at Arizona State University taught by Reisig in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminology in Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Week 2 92 15 The Nature amp Extent of Crime 0 Primary Sources of Crime data 0 Official records I Criminologists use records from government agencies Ex census data for demographic info I The UCR data is collected by local law enforcement agencies published by the FBI More than 17000 police agencies Index part 1 amp nonindex part 2 crimes 0 Part 1 are more serious and or violent o Validity of UCR I Reporting practices Some victims do not report serious crimes 0 Don t trust police 0 Think it s a waste of time or private matter 0 Fear reprisals Less than 40 of all crime is reported to police I Law enforcement practices Departments may loosely define crimes Deliberate alterations due to image concerns Improving police practices can in ate crime rates I Methodological issues Reports are voluntary FBI uses estimates in its total projections If an offender commits multiple crimes only the most serious is counted 0 Survey research I Selfreport surveys Anonymity is essential to maintain the honesty and validity of responses They suggest the number of people who break the law is greater than projected by official statistics Selfreports suggest the number of people who break the law is greater than projected by official statistics Selfreports dispute the notion that people specialize in one type of crime most criminals are generalists Most common offenses truancy shoplifting larceny under 50 fighting marijuana use and property damage 0 Validity of selfreports o Exaggeration or forgetfulness of criminal acts 0 Missing cases some people don t answer every question o Institutionalized individuals are generally not included in general population selfreport surveys 0 Reporting differences exist between social groups Victimization surveys Methodological issues Ex sampling selection process 0 National crime victimization survey NCVS Attempts to measure crime unreported to police by surveying victims People are asked about their victimization experiences Uses large nationallyrepresentative sample Approx 136000 people interviewed annually Example of findings UCR 88000 rapes per year NCVS 126000 rapes per year Validity of the NCVS Over reporting 0 Victims misinterpretations o Faulty memory Underreporting o Embarrassment o Faulty memory Sampling errors not representative 0 Evaluating crime data sources URC Strength measures homicides and arrests Weakness only includes crimes reported to police NCVS Strength includes crimes not reported to police Weakness relies on victims memory and honesty SelfReport surveys Strength offenders personal information ex Attitudes Weakness omit those who refuse to participate Secondary sources of data 0 Cohort research Retrospective cohort study Over a long period of time years Hard to conduct because of time committment 0 Experimental research Quasiexperimental design Very time consuming and expensive 0 Metaanalysis Systematic review of preexisting literature 0 Crime mapping 0 Crime Trends 0 Trends in property crime I Includes larceny motor vehicle theft and arson I Decreased since 1992 0 Trends in violent crime I Includes homicide robbery and forcible rape I Decreased since 1992 0 Overall crime rates have been declining since 1991 0 Trends in violent crime I Violent crime rates have decreased about 11 from 1997 to 2002 I Another 5 decline from 2012 to 2013 I Homicide rates peaked around 1930 held steady from 50 60 0 Trends in NCVS data I Between 19932002 violent crime rate ahs decreased 54 property crime rate decreased 50 o SelfReport trends I Use of drugs and alcohol increased in the 19705 leveled off in the 805 increased mid19905 and declined after 1997 I Suggest crime problem with teens could be greater than the UCR data reveals I Theft and violence may be more stable than the trends suggest in the UCR Ecology of crime 0 Day season and climate I Most crime occurs during warm months july amp august People spend more time outdoors Teens are out of school I Murder and robbery occur more in December and January People are in close quarters more can lead to violence I Crime rates are higher on the first day of the month due to arrival of subsidy and retirement checks 0 Temperature 9 crime I Direct effect curvilinear effect or conditional effect 0 Regional differences I Large urban areas experience more violence than rural areas I The west and south have higher crime rates than the Midwest and northeast South has the highest crime rates Cultural effect Social class and crime 0 Crime is thought to be a lower class phenomenon 0 Instrumental crimes I Help improve the criminal s financial or social position 0 Expressive crimes I Criminal acts committed due to anger frustration or rage O 0 Crime rates UCR are higher innercity highpoverty areas than those in suburban and wealthier areas Differential police activity Age and crime 0 0 00000 Younger people commit more crime than older people Youth ages 1317 account for I 6 of the US population I 25 of all index crime arrests I 17 of arrests for all crimes 16 peak age for property crimes 18 peak age for violent crimes Elderly men more often alcohol crimes Elderly women more often shoplifting Aging out of crime I High rates of adolescent offending link to Privileges and responsibilities A reduction in supervision getting your license Increased social and academic demands Larger and more diverse peer groups I People commit less crime as they get older Gender and crime 0 O Males commit more crime than females I Overall arrests 4 males 1 female I Arrests for violent offenses 5 males 1 female I Murder arrests 8 males 1 female Liberal feminist View Exam questions over this I The lower crime rate for women is explained by women s second classquot economic and social position As women s social roles change their crime rates should increase I Will crime rates of males and females ever converge The emancipation of women has little effect on female crime rates Offense patterns of women are still quite different than those of men Race and crime 0 O Minorities are involved in a disproportionate amount of officially recorded crime African Americans account for I 12 general population I 40 violent crime arrests I 30 property crime arrests Selfreports show minorities are more likely to be arrested but not necessarily more prone to crime than whites Economic and social disparity I William Iulius Wilson Racial and ethnic minorities face greater social isolation and economic deprivation higher unemployment and lower incomes both of which are linked to violent crime rates Blacks are exposed to more violence than whites Family dissolution is higher among blacks relative to whites Weakened and disrupted families cannot effectively exert social controls 0 Crime patterns 0 Chronic offenders criminal careers Small group of criminal offenders account for a majority of all criminal offenses Marvin Wolfgang 9 delinquency in a birth cohort 1972 o Followed group of people from birth until age 18 The chronic 6quot A later study showed that a chronic 1quot existed for females Children exposed to a variety of personal and social problems at an early age are the most at risk to repeat offending o Persistence the continuity of crime 0 The Future Those who start a delinquent career early are more likely to persist as adults Youthful offenders are more likely to abuse alcohol have lower aspirations get divorced and have a weak employment record Apprehension and punishment have little effect on chronic youth offenders Chronic offenders have become a central focus of crime policy 3 strikes and mandatory sentences 0 James A Fox Predicts a significant increase in teen violence due to the age makeup of the population 0 Steven Levitt Population is also aging which will offset teen crime 0 Darrell Steffensmeier Suggests more moderate increase in crime
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