Biopsychology Week 7
Biopsychology Week 7
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Monica Stert on Thursday May 15, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.
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Date Created: 05/15/14
5 13 1 Electrophysiological studies a Manipulate a mental eventmeasure of brain activity via voltage fluctuations b Event reated potential recordings ERP present stimuli record EEG perform task 1 Cortical base record sum of electrical activity of neurons in pyramidal cells large oriented axons towards scalp and PSPs are remembered going down more positive going up more negative 2 ERP record EEG time locked to the stimuli average electrical signals voltage vs time a 5 steps sensory processing feature extraction discrimination recognition decision each have their own electrical signature b ERPs and dichotic listening do we semantically process all information then choose what we attend to Effects of attention can happen very early on c Advantages more direct measure of neural activity high temporal resolution d Disadvantages poor spatial resolution X Development and Neuroplasticity A Brain Development 1 Evolutionary development progresses in mammals from rats to humans in brain size association cortex expansion and more prevalent fissures greater cortical surface 2 Prenatal development 10 weeks after conception to 41 weeks old similar progression in brain size expansion of association cortex 3 Cell migration neurons formed in ventricular layer through miotic division which then migrate to their intended destination a Primates most of neurons have completed migration at birth 4 Differentiation when neurons arrive appear all the same after migration particular genes express themselves and neurons begin to acquire their distinctive appearance and connectivity a Purkinje balance and cerebellular neurons 5 Neuronal death especially during embryonic stage more neurons are formed than necessary overproduction of synapses and dendrites 6 Synaptic density number of synapses pergiven volume of neurons continues to grow after birth peaks at about one year old preforntal cortex peaks at 45 years old pruning continues into adolescence and into adulthood 7 Preservation the uncontrollable repetition of a response due to a lack of inhibitory control a Wisconsin card sorting task color then change the category b Young children and gravity before age 4 B Prefrontal cortex development 1 Crucial for many tasks mainly a Keeping information in mind for short periods of time working memory b Plan and execute actions 515 D c Inhibit responses that may not be appropriate given the context of the current situation Effects of Experience on Development use it or lose it 1 Monocular deprivation in cats a Most visual cortex cells become binocular as the two eyes are stimulated by experience b When one eye is deprived development sensitivity of other eye becomes stronger the other eye is blind but it doesn t happen if you sew eye together as an adult c When both eyes are shut neurons develop to be equally sensitive to both eyes matched in competition for connections 2 The mozart effect null effect showed only slight increase in spatial reasoning when study was done on college students tested 10 minutes later Neuroplasticity 1 Neurogenesis growth of new neurons adults subventricular zone of lateral ventricles where they migrate to the olfactory bulb and in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus 2 Adult neural stem cells selfrenewing multipotent cells that form main types of neurons 3 Neuroplasticity ability to reorganize brain occurs during development response to injury everyday learning a Phantom limb amputated limbs still have sensations area that used to get inputs uses other inputs Developmental Disorders 1 Autism a Characteristics impaired social interactions communication and restrictiverepetitive behaviors 1 Mental retardation motor problems sleep and eating difficulties b Prevalence 4 males for 1 female 6025010000 c Causes not known but strongly genetic and polygenic d Neuropathology abnormalities in brain connections between areas are abnormal e Prognosis no known cure f Autistic savants areas of expertiseabilitybrilliance 2 Down Syndrome a Presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome happens during ovulation of egg b Prevalence 151 0000 births mutation that occurs in meiosis c Characteristics physical flat nose and skull almond eyes shortened limbs poor muscle tone somewhat mental retardation of critical thinking 3 William s Syndrome a Characteristics distinct facial characteristics elf like extreme mental retardation impaired spatial ability hyperverbal good language and music skills pleasant disposition and sociable b Prevalence 11 0000 c Causes genetic mutation to either sperm or egg cell deletion of 26 genes out of chromosome 7 effects connective skin tissue leads to heart problems and early death d Neuropathology gray matter deterioration in visual and parietal cortex but intact frontal lobes temporal lobes and cerebellum e Prognosis no known cure XI Brain Damage Tumor A 1 2 3 4 1 ko lntracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division Symptoms can develop very slowly but eventually they can include neurologic signs elevated intracranial pressure epilepsy Meningiomas encapsulated between skull and brain that are almost always benign don t grow Malignant cancerous grow diffusely into surrounding tissue metastic transported through blood stream Close head injuries Closed nonmissile when skull is not penetrated or broken leading cause of injuries bike accidents 2 May occur over wide or focal area 3 Symptoms loss of consciousness confusion drowsiness seizures headachesnausea 4 Contusions brain slams against the skull causing bleeding in brain 5 Concussions anterograderetrograde amnesias can include memory problems headaches and depression Strokes 1 CVAs Cerebral Vascular Accidents interruption of blood flow to a certain part of the brain so cells are damaged or die 2 Leading cause of death 3 Increased probability with age female gender high blood pressure diabetes high cholesterol 4 Cerebral hemorrhage rupture in brain and internal bleeding 5 lschemic blood vessel occluded blood supply partially or fully blocked to brain Epilepsy 1 Recurring unprovoked seizures 2 Record via EEG synchronized high electrical activity 3 Polygenic over 70 different genes effected and interactions with environment or viruses tumors 4 Partial seizures a Simple not aware small b Complex temporal more pronounced symptoms 5 Generalized seizures a Petit mal disruptions in consciousness fluttering eyelids vacancy b Grand mal loss in equilibrium and violent convulsions 6 Split brain surgery rsakoff s syndrome 1 Loss in vitamin B due to alcoholism and malnutrition 2 Ataxia apathy tremors amnesia confabulation 3 Treatment replace thiamine and provide proper nutrition and hydration 2 years of incomplete recovery F Multiple sclerosis 1 Affects myelination of axons neuronal death lass of white matter 2 Disruption in fast saltatory conductance loss of conductance G Huntington s Disease 1 Inherited 2 Begins with motor control and ends with cognitive problems in the basal ganglia with later age Parkinson s disease 1 Muscle rigidity tremors production of dopamine decreases but basal ganglia needs it treated with L dopa agonist but has only temporary effects 2 Deep brain stimulation stimulates dopamine depeted neurons Alzheimer s disease 1 Neurodegenerative disease 2 Some memory loss forgetful gets progressively worse in terms of spatial awareness language and reasoning 3 Neuronal loss and atrophy amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles 4 Cause is unknown may be genetic predisposition