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Week 1 and 2 Notes

by: Alexa Johnson

Week 1 and 2 Notes CHEM 111

Alexa Johnson
GPA 4.0
General Chemistry I (GT-SC2)
Claire M Filloux

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For any General Chemistry class, this is the foundational information that is necessary to begin your study. These notes are very comprehensive and easy to understand, despite the complex topics th...
General Chemistry I (GT-SC2)
Claire M Filloux
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Johnson on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 at Colorado State University taught by Claire M Filloux in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.


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Date Created: 09/05/15
CHEM 111 General Chemistry Week 1 and 2 gt 11 States of Matter All things have matter which is everything and anything in the universe that has mass and occupies space Chemistry is the study of the composition structure and properties of matter and of the energy consumed or given off when matter undergoes a change Matter takes on three forms 1 Solid De nite volume and shape 2 Liquid De nite volume but changing shape to t container 3 Gasvapor No de nite volume or shape compresses or expands based on size of container gt Atoms are the smallest particle of an element which may be grouped together with other atoms to form molecules held together by chemical bonds in a characteristic pattern and proportion Matter can transformed from one physical state to another as its temperature is raised or lowered Sublimation transformation of solid to vapor Deposition transformation of vapor to solid SoidgtSublimationgtVapor or SolidgtMeltinggtLiquidgtVaporizationgtVapor VaporgtDepositiongtSolid or VaporgtCondensationgtLiquidgtFreezinggtSolid gt 12 Forms of Enerov Energy is narrowly de ned as the ability to do work and work means the exertion of a force through distance 0 w F x d Any kind of energy transfer is the spontaneous ow of energy from a warm object to a cooler one is called heat 0 Thermal energy is the portion of total energy that increases as temperature increases We will primarily focus on energy that is released or absorbed during chemical reactions Potential energy PE energy stored in an object because of its position or composition 0 Potential goes up as distance height or mass of object goes up 0 PEmgh equivalent to mass of object x mass of object 2 x distance 0 Gforce N Neutonsaccelartion x mass Kinetic energy KE energy in motion Law of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed only converted PE and KE have an inverse relation one goes up as the other goes down 0 PE is proportional to 1KE gt 13 Classes of Matter 2 physical classes of matter pure substances and mixtures Pure substance has a constant composition that does not vary from one sample to another Physica process is a transformation of a substance that does not change its chemical identity structure of composition of particles that make it up Pure substances can be elements or compounds Eements are a pure substanace that cannot be separated into simpler substances such as gold they are contained in the periodic table and are the building blocks of all matter Compounds are pure substances that consist of two or more elements that cannot be physically separated from each other unless by a chemical process water for example A chemical formula is the compound s composition which contains symbols of elements and subscripts to indicate the proportions The Law of Constant Composition every sample of a compound is composed of the same elements combined in the same proportions Mixtures are compounds of two of more pure substances and are classi ed as either homogenous or heterogeneous mixtures Homogenous mixtures are distributed composed and appear uniformly and are called solutions such as vinegar Heterogeneous mixtures are not distributed uniformly so that the mixture contains distinct regions of different compositions such as salad dressing This includes immiscible liquids which like oil and water do not dissolve into each other Most forms of matter we encounter including the air we breathe and food and water we consume are all mixtures Distilation is a process using evaporation and condensation to separate a mixture of substances with different volatilities can be used to separate freshwater from salt water Voatiity is a measure of how readily a substance vaporizes which will depend on how strong the interaction between particles are the stronger the bond the less volatility substance has Filtration is a process for separating solid particles from a liquid or gaseous sample by passing the sample through a porous material to retain solid particles can be used to clean the air of bacteria Chromatography is a process involving stationary and mobile phases for separating a mixture of substances based on their different af nities for the two types of phases a stationary solid or a moving liquid or gas can be used for separating pigments gt 14 Prooerties of Matter lntensive properties characterize a pure substance independent of the quantity of the material present such as the characteristics of gold like its malleability color softness and melting point Extensive properties depend on how much of the substance is present The properties of substances fall into two general categories 1 Physical properties that which can be observed or measured without changing the substance into another substance like said properties of gold Density the ratio of the mass of substance or object to its volumedmV 2 Chemical properties are the tendencies of most elements to combine with others and form compounds Whether or not a particular element reacts with another element or with a particular compound or how rapidly the reaction takes place gt 15 Atomic Theory The Scienti c Method in Action Scanning tunneling microscopes have been used since the 19805 to study atoms ancient Greeks believed in atoms since the 5th century BC but the atom did not become a scienti c theory for another 2000 years Scienti c method is an approach to acquiring knowledge based on observation of phenomena development of a testable hypothesis and additional experiments that test the validity of the hypothesis The earliest description of scienti c method was published in 1620 in Fracis Bacon39s book Novum Organum Scienti c theory is a general explanation of widely observed phenomena that has been extensively tested theories usually begin as a tentative and testable explanation for an observation or series of observations called a hypothesis Scienti c law is a concise and generally applicable statement of a fundamental scienti c principle Law of de nite proportions Joseph Louis Proust 17541826 is the principle that compounds always contain the same proportions of their component elements aka the law of constant composition gt 16 A Molecular View Some pure elements also exist as molecules made of only one kind of atom The element symbols and subscripts in a molecular formula indicate how many atoms of each element are present in one molecule of the compound One way to show how atoms are connected together in a molecule is to draw a structure that includes the bonds between the atoms called a structural formula Some ways to model molecules are 1 Molecular formulas just the letters and subscripts 2 Structural formulas including all bonds 3 Condensed structural form Omitting some components 4 Ball and stick provide 3D views and accurately show angles 4 Space lling Most accurate in how atoms are arranged in 3D shape gt 17 COAST A Framework for Solving Problems COAST is a four step approach to solving problems that will be used as a framework to problem solving in this course 0 Collect and Organize Identify key concepts and key terms sort through the information given and assemble supplemental information such as equations needed 0 Analyze Working backward to create relationships or creating estimations about the outcome of the information or equation 0 Solve Solution typically comes directly from analysis this is where actual gures calculations and the determination of signi cant gures 0 Think About It Contemplate the answer you found and determine if the answer makes sense in your understanding if not try it again gt 18 Making Measurements and Expressing Results In 1791 French scientists proposed the standard unit of length the meter m after the Greek metron meaning measure 0 Since 1960 the metric system has been in place called the SI The Si unit for energy is the joule J which is the equivalent to 1kg x msquot2 Precision indicates how repeatable a measurement is o If you weigh a penny over and over the weight will always be the same Accuracy re ects how close the measured value is to the true value Signi cant gures number of signi cant gures used to report a value indicates how certain we are of the value 0 In addition and subtraction look at place over signi cant gures but in multiplication or division look for the fewest number of signi cant gures 0 There are 5 rules to signi cant gures 1 Zeroes at the beginning of a value are never signi cant 2 Zeroes after a decimal point and before a nonzero digit are always signi cant 3 Zeroes at the end of a value behind a decimal are signi cant 4 Zeroes between digits are signi cant 5 Nonzeroes are always signi cant numbers 19 Unit Conversions and Dimensional Analysis Conversion factors fractions in which numerators and denominators have different units but represent equivalent quantities o The units that are similar in the numerator of one and denominator of the other cancel each other out 0 Also called dimensional analysis 110 Temperature Scales Temperature is the most frequently used measurement Three temperature scales Fahrenheit Celcius and Kelvin 0 Kelvin K the basis Sl unit of temperature 0 The zero point on the kelvin scale called absolute zero is the coldest temperature possible T F T C x 95 32 F 32 x 59 T C TK TC 27315 Conversion from Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion from Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion from Celsium to Kelvin CHAPTER 2 gt 21 Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure Subatomic particles Atoms are not the smallest particles of matter but subatomic particles are Electrons a subatomic particle that has a relative charge of 1 and essentially zero mass lon An atom or molecule that has a positive or negative charge versus a neutral charge o Cations positively charged ions 0 Anions Negatively charged ions Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of high energy radiation and particles by materials 0 Beta particles a radioactive emission that is a high energy electron 0 Alpha particles a radioactive emission with a charge of 2 and a mass equivalent to that of helium nucleus Nucleus of an atom the positively charged center of an atom that contains nearly all the atom39s mass 0 Made up of protons neutrons and electrons Protons Subatomic particle present in the nucleus that has a relative charge of 1 and mass number of 1 Neutron electrically neutral or uncharged subatomic particle with a mass number of 1 Atomic mass unit amu unit used to express the relative masses of atoms and subatomic particles that is exactly 112 the mass of 1 atom of carbon with 6 protons and 6 neutrons o 1661 x 10quot24 grams helpful for small things not macro masses Dalton Da a unit of mass equal to 1 atomic mass unit gt 22 Nuclides and Their Svmbols lsotopes Atoms of an element containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Nucide a speci c isotope of an element Atomic number Z the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom The number of nucleons neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom de nes its mass number A AZX The mass number equals the number of protons number of electrons o This is not a weight only a quantity and is always an integer The number of protons are the identity of the element the symbol o The charge is equal to the protons minus electrons gt 23 Navigating the Periodic Table Periodic table of elements a chart of the elements in order of their atomic numbers and in a pattern based on their physical and chemical properties 0 Period all the elements in a row of the periodic table 0 Groupfamily all the elements in a column of the periodic table See Gilbert text pg 52 and gure 211 to see the groups within the periodic table The different groups are 1 Alkali metals 2 Alkaline earth metals 3 Halogens 4 Noble gases 5 Main group elements 6 Transition metals 7 Metalloids 8 Nonmetals 9 Metals gt 24 The Masses of Atoms lons and Molecules gt Average atomic mass the weighted average of masses of all isotopes of an element 0 Calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its mass in atomic mass units and summing the products Natural abundance the proportion of a particular isotope usually expressed as a perfect Molecular mass the mass in amu of one molecule of a molecular compound Formula unit the smallest electrically neutral unit of an ionic compound Formula mass the mass in amu of the one formula unit of an ionic compound 25 Moles and Molar Masses Mole mol the SI unit of measurement for an amount of a substance containing Avagadro39s number of particles ions molecules or formula units 60221 x 10quot23 Avogrado39s number the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of the carbon 12 isotope the number of particles in one mole Molar mass M is the mass of 1 mole of a substance expressed in amu


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