Week 2 lecture - Environmental Chemistry(CHM 302)
Week 2 lecture - Environmental Chemistry(CHM 302) CHM 302
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Popular in Chemistry
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ana Carolina on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 302 at Arizona State University taught by Herckes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Environmental Chemistry in Chemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Environmental Chemistry Week 2 Lecture 0 Nuclear energy 3 types of radiation 0L emission of He nucleus 339 emission of an electron 3quot emission of a positron y radiation with high energy Halflife time required for a given amount of isotope to decay half of initial quantity Radioactivity release of energy during nuclear decay Units of radiation Curie Ci 1 Ci 37 x 1010 disintegrations 1 sec Danger of radiation Marie Curie died of leukemia factory workers had cancer for exposure to radiation of radium on watches Factors influencing damage Type and penetration power of radiation 0L ionizes half of atoms 3 ionizes 1 in 1200 atoms and V has low probability of hitting Location inside or outside of the body Type of tissue exposed Amount of frequency of exposure Major sources are natural Radon is a gas very active Easy to stop but the problem is that it is a gas expand easily Radon diffuses from fractured bedrock to the sole and the house Most of the houses in Arizona don39t have basement t accumulates more Radon Use of radioactive isotopes dating 238U geological scale 14C archeological items Use of radioactive materials Radium in watches Uranium in paints Tritium in watches emergency exit signs Gamma rays in sterilizations of medical equipment irradiation of food cold pasteurization If something is radiated doesn39t mean that it is radioactive Nuclear energy Peaceful use nuclear fission nuclear fusion Military use hydrogen bomb atomic bomb Nuclear fission originally developed for atomic bomb Manhattan project 2320 an a 139m 29 3n energy 238U is more common than 235U How separate 235U from 238U With gas centrifuzion The largest nuclear power plant in US is in Arizona 3733 MW and the 12th in the world Problems with nuclear energy explosion waste risk of contamination along fuel cycle short life expectancy of reactors weapons proliferation ef Iran terrorism dirty bomb and it39s difficult and expensive to decommission Nuclear Fusion same fuel source than sun Military use hydrogen bomb Problem 100000000 0C EH iH 9 3H3 171 energy Use of laser 0 Renewable Energy 15 in the world Hydroelectric energy Three Gorges Dam China is the largest in the world 24000 MW taipu Brazil second largest in the world 12400 MW Advantages clean available as need domestic recreational activities Disadvantages fish populations water quality and flow impact by drought ef Brazil 70 hydroelectric Wind energy Used for a long time Wind farms Very high potential and the use in US is increasing Advantages clean homegrown Disadvantages expensive non continuous availability visual impacts bird killing Geothermal heat Extract the heat of earth Generation of electricity Geothermal heat pump Advantages clean reliable homegrown Disadvantages expensive emissions of hydrogen sulfide often located in protected areas Yellow Stone Tidal power Wave power unit in operation in Scotland Pavegen kinetic energy tiles o Biomass organic wastes animal waste aquatic plants algae plant residues left on field 0 Biofuels Ethanol Fermentation of sugar starches and cellulose Reduces of CO emissions Alcohol cars popular in Brazil from sugar cane Sugar vs corn vs cellulose Ethanol from corn major path of the corn in US Debate fuel or food Biodiesel mixture of methanol with vegetable oil fat cooking grease Solar energy Direct solar heating Thermal electricity Trough systems power towers solar dishengines Collect sun rays to heat water 9 steam generator The most efficient way to take energy from sun APS Solana Power Plant AZ world39s largest solar thermal plant Advantages clean homegrown Disadvantages expensive birds non continuous availability Photovoltaic electricity Valence band band gap gt conduction band Best systems 30 Advantages clean homegrown Disadvantages still expensive non continuous availability emissions associated with production of photovoltaic cells Topaz Solar Farm California 550 MW Solar panels on houses tax credits ASU in 2006 the largest photovoltaic power station in the world 115 MW in 2015 225 MW photovoltaic at ASU
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