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1305- General Biology, Week 2 Notes

by: Mercedes Taylor

1305- General Biology, Week 2 Notes General Biology 1305

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Biology > General Biology 1305 > 1305 General Biology Week 2 Notes
Mercedes Taylor
General Biology
Jennifer Apodaca

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Hello All, Here is the week 2 notes for General Biology 1305. Jennifer Apodaca
General Biology
Jennifer Apodaca
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mercedes Taylor on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to General Biology 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Jennifer Apodaca in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 311 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/05/15
1305 General Biology Jennifer Apodaca Week 2 Notes 83115 942015 Chemistry is intimately linked to the structure of life Examin unique properties of water The form and function of organisms dictated by interactions of previous levels Biology influenced by Chemistry l Atomic Structure is the Basis for Life39s Chemistry A Atoms are composed of 1 Protons positively charged 2 Neutrons neutrally charged 3 Electrons negatively charged 4 each atom has no net electric charge B Protons and Neutrons are located in the nucleus C Electrons located in orbitals surrounding the nucleus ie 4 gt Mass Protons amp Neutrons also seen as 1 Proton AND 1 Neutron He 2 gt Atomic Protons ll Bohr39s Model vs Shape of Orientation of Orbitals A Bohr39s electrons are found in specific paths orbitals around the nucleus When electrons have fixed energies this is the Energy Level B Quantum Mechanics based on the energy and possible location of an electron C Isotopes The number of nucleons Protons and neutrons in the nucleus is the atom39s atomic mass and each isotope of a given element has a different mass number 1 Le 12 C 6 protons 6 neutrons BUT Isotope 14 C 6 protons 8 neutrons 2 Atomic Masses are the average of weight of different isotopes of an element D dioactive OtODeS 1 Have unstable nuclei that emits particles of radiation energy to form new daughter isotope This is known as dioactive Decay 2 Each radioactive isotope decay at a constant rate quantified at its halflife 3 Radiometric Dating Can be used to estimate the age of the Earth and when life first appeared E Where are these Electrons in an Atom 1 Exact path of electron is unknown yet exist in Orbitals 2 Orbitals have properties and maximum number of electrons is quot2quot 3 orbitals differ in size and shape 4 Electrons in orbitals close to nucleus have less energy than do electrons in orbitals farther away 5 Several orbitals can exist at a given energy level called a Shell a Electron shells are numbered with smaller number closer to nucleus b Electron in outer shell are called Valence Electrons c Elements most commonly found in organisms have at least one unpaired valence electron The number of unpaired electrons in an atom is its Valence lll Atomic Structure A Energy levels and orbitals are different B Energy Levels 1 Represented by ring 2 Show electron39s energy C 1st shell holds one orbital 1 The orbitals have different shapes and maximum number of electrons at any given level Examples of shapes a S shape Sharp b P shape Principle c D shape Diffuse d F shape Fundamental D 2nd shell can have up to 8 electrons E Maximum number of electrons per energy level is 8 IV Periodic Table Organized by Atomic Number A M Number of electron shells B Columns Usually left gt right Indicate the number of electrons in the outer shell C Similarities of elements within a column occur because they have the same number of electrons in their outer shell and so they have similar chemical bonding properties V Biological Atoms A Typically make up 95 of atoms in living organisms 1 Hydrogen amp Oxygen found primarily in water 2 Nitrogen found in proteins 3 Carbon is building block of all mineral elements less than 1 and trace elements less than 001 4 Essential for normal growth and functions VI Chemical Bonds A Octet Rule Atoms tend to establish complete full outer energy levels Elements 620 have full outer energy levels 1 Atoms with full energy levels are less reactive than atoms with unfilled energy levels 2 Ability of atoms to combine with other atoms is determined in part by the electrons farthest from the nucleus 3 When atoms share electrons they form stable associations called Molecules B Molecules 1 Are 2 or more atoms bonded together 2 Molecular Formula a contains chemical symbols of elements found in a molecule b Subscript indicate how many of each atom are present C Compounds 1 Molecule composed of 2 elements D In a Chemical Bond 1 Valence Electrons determine the capacity to form bonds 2 Outermost Orbitals come into proximity 2 atomic orbitals each merge into a single orbital containing full complement 3 Molecules tend to be most stable when they share enough electrons to completely occupy the outermost energy level 4 Important a Covalent Bonds each atom39s unpaired valence electrons are shared by both nuclei to fill their orbitals b mu Covalent Bonds One molecule if more electronegative and holds the electrons around its nucleus more frequently than around the nuclei of other atoms c Hydrogen Bonds When hydrogen atoms covalently bond to a electronegative atom interacts with another molecule d Ionic Bonds are electrons transferred from one atom to another 5 Covalent Bonds are often the strongest of all chemical bonds because shared electrons behave as if they each belong to an atom Can Share a 1 pair single bond HF b 2 pairs gt double bond OO c 3 pairs triple bond NN 6 Electronegativity Atoms in a molecule with a high electron negative will hold the electron more tightly and have a partial negative charge whereas the other atom will have partial positive charge 7 Polar Covalent Bonds occur because the distribution of electrons around the atoms creates a polarity or difference in electric charge across the molecule 8 Hydrogen Bonds attraction interaction of hydrogen with an electronegative atom a represented by dash or dotted line b collective can form strong bond overall ie DNA strand together c Individually weak bonds can form or break easily Le a Substrate or Enzyme bond 9 Ions amp Ionic Bonds An atom or molecule that carries a charge in am a Cation atom that loses an electron gt become Positively Charged b Anion atom that gains an electron gt becomes Negatively Charged 10 Electrons can be transferred from one atom to another will still retain energy of their position in the atom a Oxidation loss an electron b Reduction gain an electron c Resulting attraction between oppositely charged ions is a Ionic Bond VII Chemical Bonds cont A The ElectronSharing continuum The degree to which electrons are shared in chemical bonds form a continuum form equal sharing in nonpolar covalent bond to unequal sharing in polar covalent bonds 1 quotHow many bonds can an atom havequot 2 The number of unpaired electrons determine the number of bonds an atom can make 3 Atoms with one or more unpaired electron can form multiple single bonds or double or triple bonds B Isomers are 2 structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics 1 Structural Isomers contain the same atoms but different bondings relationship 2 Stereoisomers identical bonding relationships but the spatial positioning of the atom differs in the two isomers a Geometric Isomers position around a double bond b Emantomers mirror image of another molecule i Example Ethambutol and Naproxen VI Chemical Bonds cont A Chemical ReactiongUsually involve the formation or the breaking of bonds Occurrence is influenced by 1 Temp heat increases reaction rate due to reactants colliding more often 2 Concentration of Reactant amp Products a More reactant faster reaction b More product gt slower reaction 3 Availability of Catalyst increase rate of reaction by lower amount of energy to get reaction started B Chemical Reactions occur when 1 One chemical is combined with another 2 One substance is broken down into another 3 In most cases chemical bonds are being broken and new bonds form C Chemical reactions are written with the Reactant 1st and then the Product 2nd 1 Chemical reactions are reversible Vll Quantifying Molecules A Molecular Weight molecules is the sums of the mass number of all atoms in a molecule B One Mole or 6022 x 10quot23 molecules has a mass equal to the molecular weight expressed in grams C The concentration of a substance in a Solution is expressed as Molarity M which is the number of moles per liter D Concentration 1 The amount of solute dissolved in a unit volume of solution 2 For example 1 gram of NaCl was dissolved in 1 Liter of water 1 gL E Molarity 1 Number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 L of water 2 1 mole of a substance is the amount of the substance in grams equals to its atomic or molecular mass Vlll Properties of Water A A Solution is made up of 1 Solvent Liquid 2 Solute gt substances dissolved in the solvent Aqueous Solution water is the solvent lons and molecule that contain polar covalent bonds will dissolve in water B quotWhy is water such an efficient solventquot 1 Life is based on water because water is a great solvent 2 The covalent bonds in water are polar because oxygen has a greater electronegativity than hydrogen a Oxygen has a partial negative charge b Hydrogen has a partial positive charge 3 Hydrogen Bonds are the weak electrical attractions between the partially negative oxygen of one water molecule and the partially positive hydrogen of a different water molecule a Can also form bw a water molecule and another polar molecule C Important Terms for water based science 1 Hydrophilic quotWaterLovingquot a Readily dissolves in water b lons and molecules that contain polar covalent bonds 2 Hydrophobic quotWaterfearingquot a Do not readily dissolve in water b Nonpolar molecule like Hydrocarbon 3 Amphipathic Molecule Have both polar and ionized regions at one or more sites and popular regions at other sites a May form micelles in water b Polar hydrophilic regions at the surface of the micelle and nonpolar hydrophobic ends are oriented toward the interior of the micelle D Correlation of water39s structure amp Properties 1 Water is unique due to its small size bent shape highly polar covalent bonds and overall polarity 2 Water has several important properties largely due to ability to form hydrogen bonds Water can be a Cohesion binding bw like molecules results in high Surface Tension b Adhesion binding bw unlike molecules i Water expands as it changes from liquid gt solid This is why ice floats c Not denser as a solid than a liquid d Able to absorb large amounts of energy e water has the large capacity for absorbing heat i High specific heat ii High heat of Vaporization E Colligative Properties of Water 1 Depend strictly on the concentration of dissolvable solute particle and not on the specific type of particle 2 Addition of solutes to water lowers its freezing point below 0 degrees Celsius and raises its boiling point above 100 degrees Celsius 3 Some animal produce antifreeze molecules that dissolve in their body fluids therefore lowering the freezing point of the fluids and preventing their blood and cells from freezing in the extreme cold F Water has many important functions 1 Participate in chemical reactions a Hydrolysis or dehydration Condensation Reaction 2 Provides force or support 3 Removes toxic waste components 4 Evaporative cooling 5 Cohesion and adhesion


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