Psychoactive Drugs Notes on Chapter 1
Psychoactive Drugs Notes on Chapter 1 22285890
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jada Dibble on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 22285890 at Central Michigan University taught by Larry Ashley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 155 views.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Psychoactive Drugs Classi cation and History Chapter 1 11 Mayans smoking cigars throughout history most cultures have been attracted to ingesting psychoactive substances that alter their mood by manipulating brain chemistry Classi cation Marijuana can be examined as A Molecule B Exotic plant C A source of nancing for insurgencies Drugs are usually classi ed by their effects 12 The classi cation of drugs is determined by many factors from the chemical and molecular structure to the genus and family of plants their psychoactive effects and even down to the risk bene t ratio it has on individuals and society Uppers stimulants Amphetamine Amphetamine Congeners Caffeine Cocaine Designer Stimulants bath salts Nicotine Plant Stimulants khat Psychostimulants phenethylamines 13 Uppers stimulants are classi ed by their primary physiological effects starting with an increase in stimulation to the central nervous system This produces an increase in alertness blood pressure heart rate and energized muscles but the effects of uppers also include insomnia and decreased appetite Downers depressants Alcohol Antihistamines Opiates and opioids Sedative hypnotics 14 Downers depressants are classi ed by their physiological effects which include the depression of the central nervous system which slows heart rate and respiration while relaxing muscles decreasing coordination and the sense of pain All Arounders psychedelics Anticholinergics Cannabinoids lndoles Phenylalkylamines Others 0 Ketamine o PCP o Salvia o DXM 15 All Arounders are a class of drugs that mostly don t have dominant physical effects because they are known to produce mental effects which can include visual hallucinations and a separation from special and temporal norms Other Drug Addictions lnhalants deliriants Steroids and other sports drugs Psychiatric medications Compulsive behaviors 16 There are many chemicals not meant for human consumption that have a variety of mental effects not easily classi ed Sime are toxic like inhalants others like steroids have an addictive component because of the users attachment to muscle mass or winning sports contests while psychiatric medications are not psychologically reinforcing they can cause tissue dependence Compulsive behaviors such as gambling overeating online game playing sex or shopping create an altered state which produces a huge boost of dopamine not unlike cocaine Historical Themes Cope with environment Susceptible brain chemistry Businessgovernment involvement Re ning synthesizing manufacturing drugs New methods of using 17 Throughout history people have used drugs for many reasons 1 Cope with One s Environment 18 Harsh climates often give reason for its inhabitants to use drugs Coca use is often prevalent in high altitude villages over 10000 feet Khat is used by desert people to keep their minds focused in excessive heat Alcohol is often used to adjust to stressful situations All are ways in which drugs are used to cope with the environment 2 Susceptible Brain Chemistry 19 Both brain chemistry and the structural differences in the brain help determine our sensitivity to environmental stressors drugs and inheritable characteristics 3 Business and Government Involvement 110 Historically governments have attempted to monopolize and nancially exploit the drug trade Spain exclusively controlled the growth of the coca leaf and made it available to silver miners Brittan fought China for the right to sell opium in what the British called the War for Free Trade but what the world calls the Opium Wars All countries now tax the sale of alcohol and cigarettes 4 Re ning and Synthesizing 111 In the 18th century methods of distilling alcohol were developed The 19th century brought many re nements including morphine from opium and cocaine from coca The 20th century opened the door to synthesizing drugs from chemicals 5 Methods of Using 112 New methods of rapid onset delivery include the pipe rst used for tobacco then opium and the syringe developed in the 18505 More recent developments have been smokable cocaine and methamphetamine vaping of nicotine and THC in marijuana also new methods for making butane hash oil Ancient Cultures 113 Many ancient cultures were centered around crops that helped support their culture Opium in the Middle East coca leaf in Peru and cannabis in India were all examples of this Ancient Egyptian medical tests list opium poppy seeds as a food small concentrations of opium as a medicine and greater concentrations of it as a poison Methods of Use Drinking marijuana Smoking opium Chewing betel nut Snorting cocaine Injecting morphine lnhaling alcohol Volatizing cannabis extracts 14 Ingestion of psychoactive substances comes in a variety of methods some ancient and others modern Whether the drug passes through the stomach or the lungs it enters the blood stream and then directed to the blood brain barrier O O O O O 0 Age of Discovery 115 Europeans found drugs from other continents to have psychoactive effects They were then popularized and nancially exploited by governments to produce revenue 19th Century Re nement and Commercialization Advancements in re nement of morphine in 1805 cocaine in 1859 and heroin in 1874 Concentrated the psychoactive properties of the opium poppy and coca bush which lead the way to their commercialization 116 The 19th century was the age of commercialization and advertising cocaine laced drinks patent medicines containing morphine alcohol and cannabis were available over the counter Hypodermic injection kits with cocaine and heroin were available through the Sears catalogue It takes 100 pounds of coca leaf to make 1 pound of cocaine The extraction process includes multiple steps as well as various toxic chemicals including kerosene gasoline and acid 117 The idea behind re nement is to take a plant that contains a small amount of a drug and separate it from all the other plant materials concentrating the drug Examples are the re nement of morphine from opium poppies or cocaine from the coca leaf This concentration makes the drug more toxic as well as more euphoric than the ingestion of its original form OpiatesOpioids Directly from the opium poppy Opium morphine codeine Semisynthetic Heroin hydrocodone Synthetic Fentanyl methadone Darvon buprenorphine Demerol Opioid Antagonists Naloxone Narcan naltrexone Revia 118 Opiates are drugs that come from the opium poppy after re nement Opioids are drugs that are synthesized in a lab and copy the chemical structure of the molecules The 20th Century and the Age of Regulation Before there was a federal income tax system the US government generated signi cant revenue from the taxation of alcohol opium and tobacco The Food and Drug Act 1906 The Smoking Opium Exclusion Act 1909 and the Harrison Narcotic Act 1914 made cocaine and opiates illegal and this fostered the growth of illegal drug sales 119 At the beginning of the 20th Century the US government was dependent on the tax revenue from alcohol opium and tobacco A series of laws meant consumers from toxic substances was put in place because the unregulated use of drugs was found to do more harm than the tax revenue did well The Age of Regulation The next move by Congress was the prohibition of alcohol Taxes on alcohol supplied 50 of the US budget Despite this the 18th amendment went into effect in 1920 making the manufacture and distribution of alcohol a crime Prohibition was repealed in 1933 120 From the middle of the 18505 a movement began to develop in the US to prohibit the production and distribution of alcohol In 1920 it went into effect Although prohibition did spawn a spree of criminal activity from bootlegging and smuggling it also brought down the rates of domestic violence and admissions into hospitals for alcoholism Although society looks back on Prohibition as a failure it did have some successes Declines in cirrhosis of the liver and other alcohol related diseases and dramatic declines in domestic violence and violent crimes 121 The cost of prohibition were very high in terms of legal costs and de ance of the law Eventually Congress passed an amendment to the Constitution and alcohol was again legally available The 19305 brought about the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous the Marijuana Tax Act which was effectively a prohibition act and followed by a massive propaganda campaign and the synthesis of LSD by Dr Albert Hofmann 122 In the 19305 Alcoholics Anonymous a selfhelp group was formed and has since spread around the world During the same time frame prohibition minded people looking for a new cause found a means to make marijuana illegal through the Marijuana Tax Act This was followed up with a massive propaganda campaign Meanwhile in Europe Dr Albert Hofmann was experimenting with the chemical compounds to unlock the secrets of mental illness Dr Hofmann discovered LSD The 19605 were troubled years that included assassinations race riots and the Vietnam War Young people were testing the authority of the government which included the use of marijuana and LSD 123 The 19605 were an era of upheaval Young people disillusioned with what society was telling them looked to psychedelic drugs for answers to questions that their parents did not consider The government pushed back with the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 Followed by the quotWar on Drugsquot campaign while expanding the methadone maintenance program 124 A new era of prohibition was ushered in by the Nixon administration Nixon made his War on Drugs campaign a center piece of his administration The late 19705 and 19805 ushered in a new era of uppers Smokable forms of both cocaine and methamphetamine increased the intensity of the rush and lowered the price 125 In the late 1970 and the 805 a new era of stimulant abuse was fueled by the crack and ice phenomena Both were more powerful forms of the drug causing greater compulsive use patterns in users The 19905 became the decade of the brain as more neurotransmitters were discovered and more imaging techniques were developed to understand the relationships between psychoactive drugs brain chemistry and mental illness 126 Due to the discoveries of endorphins and other neurotransmitters in the mid19705 a new age of scienti c discovery was launched Along with more research on the brain came a plethora of imaging techniques in the 19905 leading to new discoveries about the relationships between mental illness neurotransmitters and drugs The war in Afghanistan and Iraq brought about thousands of cases of physical trauma and PTSD for which veterans have been prescribed opiates This era of drug use has brought on another downer cycle 127 Opiate abuse accelerated during the US Civil War and the Vietnam Wars
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