Week 2 Notes: Chapters 5-7
Week 2 Notes: Chapters 5-7 301
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Deal on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. April South in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
CHAPTER 5 Climates and Soils Greenhouse Gases 0 Solar radiation hits Earth 0 Radiation absorbed by Earth is turned into infrared radiation 0 Infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases GHG o GHG reemit infrared most of which stays trapped in the atmosphere 0 CFCs are very dangerous synthetic GHGs 0 Some regions will become up to 4 degrees C 7 degrees F hotter Unequal Heating by Sun 0 Path and angle of sun intensity of solar radiation depends on the angle at which it hits the Earth s surface 0 Albedo fraction of solar energy reflected o Poles have lots of albedo cool temperatures Snow reflects light 0 Asphalt has low albedo hot temps Dark color absorbs energy 0 Seasonal heating of Earth 235 degree tilt 0 Sun hits different parts of Earth depending on the season 0 Solar equator latitude receiving most direct rays from the sun Changes with the seasons Air Currents 0 Properties of air 0 Atmospheric convection currents air circulation between Earth s surface and atmosphere 0 Saturation amount of water vapor air can contain Increases with higher temps o Adiabatic cooling cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises and expands o Adiabatic heating warming effect of increased pressure on air as it lowers and condenses o Latent heat release water converted from gas to liquid releases energy as heat 0 Formation of currents o Hadley cells circulation of air between 30 degrees N and 30 degrees 8 o lTCZ Hadley cells converge and cause precipitation at the solar equator 0 Polar cells currents moving air between 60 and 90 degrees NS Coriolis Effect 0 Deflection of an object s path due to rotation of Earth 0 Extreme latitudes rotate slowly o Midlatitudes rotate quickly 0 NE trade winds move NE to SW SE trade winds move SE to NW Westerlies move W to E Ocean Currents Distribute unequal heating influence location of different climates Gyres large scale water circulation Upwelling upward movement of ocean water 0 Lots of marine life found here El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO changes in ocean currents in the S Pacific every 37 years 0 Causes weather changes 0 Warm water changes directions Thermohaline circulation pattern of water currents 0 Warm water flows from Gulf of Mexico to North Atlantic where it freezes and evaporates o Salty water sinks to ocean bottom 0 Cold water travels along ocean floor 0 Cold water rises and circulates to Atlantic Geographic Features Rain shadow leeward side of mountain is dry as a result of humid ocean winds causing rain on the windward side Tropical climate warm temperature and high precipitation near equator Dry climate low precipitation and wide range of temperatures near latitudes 30 degrees N and S Moist subtropical midlatitude climate warm dry summers and cold wet winters Moist continental midlatitude climate interior of continents experiencing warm summer cold winters and moderate precipitation Polar climatecold with little precipitation Soil Formation and Diversity Soil chemically and biologically altered material that overlies bedrock Parent material bedrock underlying soil 0 Determines what kind of soil will form above it Horizons layers of soil Leaching groundwater removes some substances by dissolving and moving them down the soil layers Weathering physicalchemical alteration of rock near the surface Cation exchange capacity ability of soil to retain cations Podsolization clay particles break down in E horizon and soluble ions are transported to B horizon o Occurs in acidic soils Laterization breakdown of clay particles which leaches Si from soil CHAPTER 6 Biomes Terrestrial Biomes o Biome region containing communities composed of organisms with similar adaptations o Convergent evolution 2 species from unrelated ancestors are similar because they evolved under similar conditions 0 9 terrestrial biomes fall under 3 temperature categories 0 lt5 degrees C 0 520 degrees C 0 gt20 degrees C tropical 0 Climate diagram plots average monthly temp temperature and precipitation 0 Growing season months warm enough for plant growth Tundra o Coldest biome lt5 degrees C o Permafrost permanently frozen soil Precipitation lt600 mm Treeless Acidic and nutrient poor soil Alpine tundra found in mountain ranges 0 Less severe than normal tundra Boreal Forest 0 Temperature lt5 degrees C 0 Can be as low as 60 degrees C o Precipitation 50 to 1Kmm 0 Soil podsolized 0 Evergreen trees Temperate Rainforest 0 520 degrees C 0 High precipitation 0 Evergreen forests Temperate Seasonal Forest 520 degrees C Moderate precipitation Slightly acidic podsolized soil Deciduous trees WoodlandsShrublands 0 520 degrees C o Mild seasonal precipitation o Schlerophyllous vegetation small durable leaves Temperate GrasslandsCold Deserts 0 520 degrees C o Varied precipitation 0 Tall v Shortgrass prairies o Unproductive at lt250 mm 0 Soil low in acidity and is nutrient rich Tropical Rainforests 0 gt20 degrees C o gt2K mm precipitation 0 Nutrient poor soil devoid of humus and clay Tropical Seasonal ForestsSavannas 0 gt20 degrees C 0 Wet and dry seasons 0 Soil unable to hold nutrients Subtropical Deserts 0 gt20 degrees C o No precipitation 0 Neutral soil devoid of organic matter Streams and Rivers 0 Lotic flowing fresh water 0 Stream creek narrow fast flowing 0 River wide slow flowing 0 Supports more life than stream 0 More nutrient rich downstream o Riparian zone band of vegetation along rivers and streams influenced by seasonal flooding and elevated water tables 0 Allochthonous organic matter coming from OUTSIDE the ecosystem o Autochthonous organic matter coming from WITHIN the ecosystem o Dams stop flow of water for irrigation and electricity 0 Create places for silt to settle 0 Poor ecosystems Ponds and Lakes 0 Pond aquatic biome smaller than a lake 0 Nonflowing fresh water 0 Some areas too deep for plants to rise above surface 0 Some areas are too deep for light to reach 0 Lake larger than a pond o Nonflowing fresh water 0 Some areas too deep for plants to surface 0 Some areas are too deep for light to reach 0 Littoral zone shallow area around lakepond with rooted vegetation o Limnetic zone open water beyond littoral zone dominated by algae Profundal zone area in lake too deep for sunlight 0 Low oxygen Epilimnion surface layer Benthic zone sediments and bottom of lakes ponds and oceans Hypolimnion deep layer of water in lakepond Thermocline middle depth of water that experiences rapid temperature change Circulation 0 Stratification warmer less dense surface water floats on dense cool water In the summer surface water warms faster 0 Spring and fall overturn vertical mixing of lake water by winds that drive surface currents 0 Fall bloom rapid increase in phytoplankton occurring with infusion of nutrients from fall overturn Freshwater Wetlands o Aquatic biome containing standing water or soil completely saturated with water 0 Shallow enough for emergent vegetation in all depths o Swamp contains emergent trees 0 Mangrove swamp occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts Salttolerant trees with submerged roots Shoreline erosion o Marsh emergent nonwoody vegetation 0 Salt marsh mixing of salt and fresh water High biological activity 0 Bog acidic water with adaptive plants Coral Reef 0 Marine biome found in shallow water gt20 degrees C o Symbiotic relationship with algae 0 Warm temperatures cause algae to die and coral bleaching Open Ocean 0 Neritic zone past the lowest tidal level extending to 200 m 0 Continental shelf stops 0 High biological productivity 0 Oceanic zone beyond neritic zone 0 Photic zone area of neritic and oceanic zones containing enough light for algae to photosynthesize o Aphotic zone no sunlight CHAPTER 7 Evolution and Adaptation Genes and Alleles DNA made of nucleotides Chromosomes compact DNA wound around proteins Alleles different forms of a gene 0 Phenotypic differences Polygenic single trait affected by several genes 0 Range of phenotypes Pleiotropy single gene affects multiple traits Epistasis expression of 1 gene is affected by another gene Dominant and recessive alleles 2 copies of each gene 0 00000 Heterozygous 2 different alleles Homozygous 2 identical alleles Codominant 2 alleles both contribute to phenotype Dominant allele masks expression of another allele Recessive expression masked by presence of another allele Gene pool all alleles in a population Sources of Genetic Variation Random assortment making haploid gametes in which combination of alleles could be any combo of those from the diploid parent Mutation random change in DNA sequence that comprise or control a gene 0 O Synonymous no detectable effect Nonsynonymous changes resulting protein Missense different protein Nonsense codes for STOP VERY bad Recombination reshuffling of genes as DNA is copied during meiosis O Crossing over of homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes
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