Week 1 Lectures - Principles of Human Anatomy
Week 1 Lectures - Principles of Human Anatomy Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dorsey on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy at University of Indianapolis taught by Justin Maiers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Principles of human anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Principles of Human Anatomy Bio 10305 Notes from 31 August 2015 Basic Overview of the Course and Key Terms Ordan Svstems Covered Integumentary System Skin Muscular and Skeletal System Nervous System Cardiovascular System and a little bit of the lymphatic system in this section Digestive and Respiratory Systems Urinary and Reproductive Systems Key Terms and De nitions D a branch of science that is concerned with the study of bodily structures of humans 0 We are NOT doing physiology this semester which deals with the chemistry of everything 0 We will look a little bit at the cellular level to start out but we are more concerned with the tissues and higher systems l face forward with palms out describing in relation to patient position Directional Anatomy Describing Locations in the Anatomical Position D above closer to the head 0 ex The head is superior to the neck D below closer to the feet 0 ex The heart is inferior to the brain l in front of 0 ex The sternum is anterior to the spine D in back of 0 ex The kidneys are posterior to the stomach D toward the belly side anteri towards the back side posterior gt Generally describes animals that walk on four or more legs closer to the head superior D closer to the tail inferior an imaginary line that runs down the middle of the body and divides the body into right and left halves l towards the midline or at the midline ex The sternum is the most medial bone laway from the midline ex The humerus is lateral to the ribs D on the outside or external 0 ex Skin is super cial to the triceps muscle l on the inside or internal 0 ex The heart is deep compared to the skin l closer to the point of attachment to the trunk of the body 0 ex The femur is more proximal than the bula D farther away from the point of attachment to the trunk of the body Ex The metatarsals are more distal than the patella Regional Anatomy main axis of the body 0 contains the head neck and trunk of the body 0 Further divisions head neck Thorax lungs and heart back pelvis anterior region of the pelvis D upper and lower limbs Upper Limb o o o 0 Lower Limb o thigh leg foot 0 o Anatomic Planes a theoretical at surface that separates the body into two parts 0 Three main planes 0 divides the body vertically into anterior front and posterior back parts Produces a coronal or frontal section 0 passes parallel to the midline separating the body into left and right sides Produces a sagittal section Midsagittal Plane Median Plane passes through the midline o divides the body horizontally into superior and inferior parts Produces a cross section D cuts made along the body plane to show internal anatomy Can see these actual cuts with a CT scan Body Cavities Internal organs are housed within enclosed spaces known as cavities contains cavities completely encased in bone 0 houses the brain 0 houses the spinal cord contains cavities encased in serous membrane 0 Subdivisions o Pleural Cavities surrounds the lungs o Mediastinum contains the heart 0 contains the liver kidneys stomach large intestine small intestine and other organs 0 contains the bladder reproductive organs and rectum thin double layered membrane that lines walls of ventral body cavity and surfaces of organs 0 Two Layers layers are separated by a cavity lled with serous uid arm forearm hand O lines cavity walls covers organs Principles of Human Anatomy BIO 10305 Notes from 01 September Cells and Tissues Not talking about prokaryotes no nucleus or compartmentalized structures 0 Anatomy deals with Eukaryotes cells with nuclei and other organelles As far as cell structures go we only really need to focus on o D internal environment that supports the organelles o maintains balance within the cell c D controls the cell Cell Diversity 0 Cells that connect body parts form linings or transport gases 0 0 blood cells 0 0 Cells that move organs and body parts 0 o 0 Cells that store nutrients o fat cell 0 Cell that ght disease found stationary in the tissues or mobile as a white blood cell 0 Cell that gathers information and controls body functions 0 s 0 Cell of reproduction o Groubs of Cells form Tissues l groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function covers supports controls produces movement Epithelial Tissue Anything exposed to outside environment 0 Covers a body surface or lines the body cavity 0 Ex Skin and the entire digestive system 0 Typically 1 to 5 layers thick ALWAYS forms over a layer of connective tissue Lie on a D generates different cells 0 The membrane itself is nonceuar and is formed by connective tissue bers D no blood vessels in the epithelia D supplied by nerve bers Highly regenerative 0 Protection 0 Transport within cells 0 Secretion creates sweat oil etc Classi cation of Epitheia o 1 laye 2 layers appear layered but all cells touch the basement membrane very tall and nucleus is in different places 0 UNCOMMON o Pseudostrati ed columnar in ciliated variety cells of the trachea at squarerectangular taller than wide change shape and stretch to accommodate expansion 0 Transitional epithelium in bladder urethra uterus and that is about it Examples Simple squamous in air sacs of lungs and blood vessels Simple cuboidal in kidney tubules and glands Simple columnar in digestive tract Strati ed squamous in outer layer of skin mouth vagina Strati ed cuboidal in ducts of sweat glands Strati ed columnar in epididymis mammary glands and larynx Connective Tissue Most abundant in body Derived from the same type of cell D mesenchyme cells in the embryo Extracellular matrix ECM is abundant D looks like loose spaces and bers 0 Made up of ground substance and protein bers 0 Highly vascularized D lots of blood vessels Binds structures together Two types of connective tissue D and Proper connective Loose Erratic bers with far apart cells 0 Functions 0 Support D collagen elastic and reticular bers 0 Hold uid D surrounds blood vessels 0 Fights infection l pathogens enter areolar tissue after penetrating epithelia Kills pathogens to keep them from entering the circulatory system 0 Stores Nutrients D energy reserves as the form of adipose fat o Nucleus on outside of cell 0 No growth limit 0 Found everywhere Cushioning for important bits of the body Behind eyes knees between organs etc D bers 0 Found in glands and lymph nodes Filters toxins 0 Form a soft internal skeleton stroma that supports cells including white blood cells mast cells and macrophages Three subtypes D and Muscle tissue One nucleus per several cells Always pulls in the same direction to help with support Primarily parallel collagen bers major cell type is broblast some elastic bers Attaches muscle to bones or to other muscles attaches bone to bone Located as tendons and most ligaments Stretches every which way 0 Primarily irregularly arranged collagen bers major cell type is broblast some elastic bers Provides structural strength Located as brous capsules of organs and joints dermis of the skin submucosa of digestive tract 0 000000 00 High proportion of elastic bers Goes back to original shape after its purpose is complete High recoil No nuclei Found in aorta veins and parts of the lungs O OOOOOI Special Connective Tissue Three subtypes D and Amorphous jelly matrix that is rigid and does not move quotyin yangquot cell pairs Collagen bers form a tightknit network Resists compression Covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities costal cartilage of the ribs in the nose trachea and larynx 00000 0 More elastic bers in the matrix than hyaline o More exible than hyaline cartilage o Maintains shape 0 Supports external ear pinna Matrix is similar to but less rm than hyaline cartilage Thick collagen bers Meant to take wear and tear Absorbs compressive shock lntervertebral discs and discs of the knee joint OOOOO Bone marrow is hematopoietic D produces more blood cells Hard calci ed matrix Contains many collagen bers Cross section of a bone shows the cells to look like a compilation of many trees when looking at the rings Red and white blood cells in a uid matrix plasma Transports oxygen nutrients wastes and other substances Three subtypes D and o On bone 0 Movement is typically voluntary but not always 0 Generates the most movement seen 0 Found only in the heart 0 Pumps blood through the body 0 Involuntary movement Found in the digestive system Generates slow rhythmic contractions to move blood and food through the body Involuntary movement Does not need nerve simulation to contract Spinal cord brain nerves Helps enervate muscles and make them contract Stimulus response Main cell type is a neuron Principles of Human Anatomy BIO 10305 Notes from 02 September lntegumentary System Skin is the largest organ and it is made of multiple tissues working together 0 D epithelial tissue 0 D connective tissue 0 D connective tissue A Quick Review of Roots Epi D means quoton top ofquot Hypo D means quotunderneath ofquot Function of the Skin o Cushions and insulates organs 0 Protects from pathogens 0 Prevents water loss D Retain heat or regulate heat loss D loss of sweat D sensory organ D via use of UV Rays Epidermis Made up of 2 layers of at cells 0 Dead cells are pushed towards the surface Cell 7ypes D most abundant epidermal cell produces keratin nger nails 0 D produces melanin causes skin pigmentation found in deepest layer of epidermis D activates the immune system if a foreign substance breaks through the rst few layers of the epidermis Appearance of the Epidermis Varies depending on location on the body 0 D palms and soles 0 Five layers with a thick outer layer 0 Helps resist drying and wear 0 Allows walking on hands and feet 0 D most of body 0 Four layers lacks the o Thinner outer layer A Mnemonic to Remember the Layers Within the Epidermis Before D Basale Deep Signing D Spinosum Get D Granulosum Legal D Lucidum Counsel D Corneum Super cial Layers Within the Epidermis deepest layer 0 Single row of cells above the basement membrane 0 10 to 25 of cells are melanocytes Melanin transferred to nearby keratinocyte and pigmentation stays within the cells as they move towards the surface 0 Most mitosis occurs here 0 Some mitosis occurs here 0 Several rows of cells 0 Consists of Dendritic Langerhans cells Immune cells and transports foreign material to lymph nodes 0 Last living layer of cells 0 15 layers of at keratinocytes not quite as at as the cells in the stratum basale o Stops evaporation of water through surface of the skin primary role in preventing dehydration 0 ONLY in thick skin 0 Looks like a clear band between Granulosim and Corneum o Consists of dead keratinocytes 0 Layer of dead cells dandruff Fun fact you shed approximately 40 lbs of dead skin in a lifetime 0 Thicker in thick skin go gure Disorders of the Epidermis D caused by friction and heat 0 D a thickened and hardened part of the skin or soft tissue especially in an area that has been subjected to friction Be Sure to Remember 0 Epidermis is and has no blood supply Dermis O Areolar loose connective tissue 0 Two Layers o D increases surface area to get nutrients to the epidermis o l gives skin its strength and resilience Has sensory nerve bers free nerve endings to help with acute touch glands and hair follicles o Glands and follicles are invaginations pockets pushed down into the next layer of skin of the epidermis D impressions form ngerprints on the palms and soles o Increases friction and touch sensitivity Hypodermis Large blood vessels and fat cells 0 Two Layers o D fat stores 0 D connected to muscles Appendaoes of the Skin Muscles and nerves attached to every hair Arrector pilli muscles make the hair stand up Peritricial nerves are at the base of the hair reason why it hurts to pull out a hair nail bed cuticle root o Sebaceous oil Gland most associated with hair everywhere but palms and soles o Suderiferous sweat Gland Found throughout body Three types 0 everywhere true sweat armpit and groin odorous makes earwax 0 Look like little pods 0 Two types of Corpuscles Meissner s Corpuscle Found in the papillary layer of the dermis Light touch very sensitive Found in lips and nger tips Pacinian Corpuscle Found in the reticular layer of the dermis and Hypodermis Deep constant steady pressure Rapidly adapting pressure that seems to be noticeably present becomes less noticeable as time progresses 0 Free nerve endings D sensitive to pain and temperatures 0 Peritrical Nerve Ending connected to hair follicle
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