MMG 301 Week One Notes
MMG 301 Week One Notes MMG 301
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Lin on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MMG 301 at Michigan State University taught by s. mulrooney in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 185 views. For similar materials see Introductory Microbiology in Journalism and Mass Communications at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Pagel Note Taker Marco Lin Professor Dr Mulrooney MMG 301 Date 9 2 15 to 9 4 15 Key Bold is important Underline is class specific assignments etc Italisize is topics I do not own or take credit of most images links or works cited are found near images or end of notes MMG 301 Week One Notes 9 2 15 Cells have many important properties Properties of ALL Cells 1 Metabolism Cells needs nutrients They transform them and expel the wastes into the environment Metabolism are for two functions genetics replication transcription and translation and catalytic which is for energy and biosynthesis 2 Growth Cells take up nutrients from the environment and convert it into new cells and they reproduce 3 Evolution cells will evolve from mutations to receive new properties Phylogenetic trees display evolution relationships Properties of SOME Cells Differentiation Some cells can form new structure Example Spore Communication Cells can interact with each other via chemicals Genetic Exchange Cells can exchange genes materials like DNA PEPE Mobility Cells can move through self propulsion Ex Flagellum tail Prokaryotie and Eakaryotie Cell Features Features of all Cells 0 Cytoplasmic Membrane Page Cytoplasm Ribosomes Macromolecules Genome prokaryotic chromosomes are aggregated into a nucleoid Eukaryotic genome is multiple chromosomes in a membrane enclosed nucleus They both may contain other genetic elements Microbe Impacts on health Microogranisms that causes diseases are called Pathogens Infectious Diseases are no longer a major cause of death for humans due to medical research However not all microbes are harmful some microbes have a beneficial role in human health EX bacteria in the stomach Important People in Microbiology 1 Robert Hooke Used his early microscope to view molds in 1665 2 Antoni Van Leewenhoek Used a single lens microscope to see animalcules and he reported the first bacteria in 1676 3 Ferdinand Cohn He improved microscope and as a result he discovered new bacteria spores and he developed a classification system in 1860s 4 Louis Pasteur disproved the theory of spontaneous generation which is a theory that living organisms arose from non living matter The developed the aseptic technique which is used for culturing the growth of microbes This led to the development of vaccines for anthraX fowls cholera and rabies 1885 Rabies when you get the bite exposure and in nine months you receive the disease 100 fatality rate This can be cured through vaccination Rabies affect the nerve tissue The experiments for rabies was Louis took an animal with rabies took the spinal tissue dry the tissue and the result the virus died The died virus was then put into animals or humans to be Page3 used as an vaccination This works because the immune system makes antibodies to counter the active rabies Pasteur disproved the theory of spontaneous generation using the swan neck ask experiment The procedure is that he took the meat boil it and filtered it He then poured it into the ask the neck of the ask was drawn out in ame and the liquid was sterilized by heating He let it cooled and it stayed sterile Thus this disproved the spontaneous generation because the liquid was eXposed to air and nothing grew 5 Robert Koch First to link microbes and infectious disease He devolved agents of anthraX and tuberculosis He developed Koch s Postulates equating a pathogen with the disease it causes He developed techniques such as semi solid media for obtaining pure cultures of microbes He eXperimented on himself and he treated himself with TB He isolated tuberculin from cultures and treated himself 6 Ignaz Semmelweis Managed two birthing clinics in Vienna hospital He observed his clinics the birth assisted by midwives has much lower blood infection sepsis rates than assisted by physicians He proved that sanitation helped with lowering infection 7 Joseph Lister he observed that heat filtration and chemicals can kill bacteria Carbonic acid phenol was used for sanitation 8 Martinus Neijerinck He stated that the central role of microbes in the nitrogen cycle 9 Arry Marshall and Robin Warren found out that ulcers were done by bacteria Assigned Reading Test on coccus diplococcic streptococci bacillius vibrio and spirochete Eoc ci Emit U5 dipllzntcorcrci rizliplrnmncrci Staphylococci 3971 El39itIIEIEiiElJIEtIErij I i 3 3 O atria abattoir i 5 3 Fa i Fl 3 tetrast Eaciilli sizlil lizu lziaalcilli El we also tram i l l i EJEIiEEIEIE E Budding Ell39ld appemdaged bacteria httpsenwikibooksorgwindexphp titleFile Page4 the r5 BRIEFElli r Fusu bacterium H39br39 39 Comma form BliE I luv i tiarin Helical form EILI I FriEIin En r5 I39lE beisEEEriEiEEEIE Ha I icn blaster pay In ri I ribE g liloLR iii EL 7quot P H 39 RV l L H l T Elliquot afar9W5 nan Ba rrEl ia bu rgdnlrfie ri all Harlin H Li Mil 39 q a r 39 2 n r l 7 n a air 3 quot 7 V or r I 7 I n i ll aim FiIEF Eil39ltEIU 5 apir chete 3aBacterial morphology diagramSVgampfiletimestamp20070201093634 Microscopes 9220 5 Pages Microscopy Basics Bacterial size is in the range of micrometer units Two types of microscope use different lenses to magnify images 1 Refractive glass lenses for light microscopes 2 Electromagnet lenses for electron microscopes Magnification VS Resolutions Magnification Increases in size of object The total magnification is the objective lens multiplied by ocular lens Resolution not magnification limits the size of what can be clearly seen by the microscope Bright Field Microscopy A microscope that uses light to illuminate specimens from below As a result the cells appear to have a bright background Light Microscopes Use numerical aperture to estimate the small observable object The shorter 05 Wavelength NA the wavelength equals to higher resolving power The resolving power is Oil immersion The benefit of oil immersion increases the level of light collection up through the light specimen Immersion oil has a refraction indeX of 15 Microscopes that produce a two dimensional image Bright Field Light is transmitted through the specimen Used for stains Objected view against bright background and the contrast limits viewing of cells because they are transparent Phase Contrast converts changes in refractive indeX into contrast Dark field specimen viewed on a dark background Fluorescence relies on artificial or natural uorescence 0 A problem with bright field microscopes because bacterial cells are clear Page 0 Solutions is staining to improve contrast the steps of staining is preparing the smear dry in air pass slide through ame to fiX ood slide with stain and rinse and dry Differential Stains use multiple stains of different colors to distinguish different types of microorganisms There are two types gram stain and acid fast stain Gram Stain Distinguish Gram and gram bacteria Gram is the different cell wall structure This permits detection of bacteria against host cells The gram stain steps 1 ood the heat fixed smear with crystal violet 2 add iodine solution 3 decolorize with alcohol and the result is gram is purple and gram is colorless 4 add a counterstain with safranin G is now pink to red Gram Positive cells are purple Gram Negative cells are red or pink Gram stain works for most bacteria thus acid fast stain is used Acid fast stain Differences the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and leprosy from other bacteria Based on the presence of cell waxes that retain the stain when treated with acid alcohol decolorizes non acid fast bacteria Steps for acid fast stain 1 ooded with carbol fuschsin and phenol for three minutes and rinse 2 rinse with alcohol and acid 3 HCl and 70 alcohol until color appears to be removed 3 ooded with methylene blue counterstain for 30 seconds Acid Fast bacteria is dark pink purple color Case Study breast tuberculosis Page7 Female patient was admitted in Rome Had no fever had a history of breast cancer history of tuberculosis and recent weight loss A biopsy was done and the result with tuberculosis in the breast This was figured out with ziehl neelsen staining revealed the acid fast bacilli Other types of microscopes Phase Contrast Find differences in refractive indeX within unstained cells into contrast This allows us to look at live cells Dark Field Microscope utilizes a cardiod dark field condenser between light source and specimen Produces a hollow cone of light Light reaching the specimen is scattered and objects appear bright white against a dark background A dark field microscope is useful for thin cells This can be used on live cells Fluorescence when something absorbed a wavelength of light excitation and when the thing let go of the light the result is emission The result is a burst of light Some cells of auto uorscent and they do not need to be stained An epifuorescene is excitation light from above the specimen 3D microscopes Differential interference contrast microscopes O A variation of phase contrast 0 Utilizes a pair of matches prism and polarizers 0 Produces high contrast 3D light images with a shadow adds detail detail of internal structures of unstained cells Confocal scanning laser microscope 0 Uses laser beam illuminations with a narrow wavelength 0 Single point of light scans the sample 0 Computer store the images and stack them to produce a 3D image Pages Electron Microscopes 0 Used to study internal cell structures and surfaces 0 Uses a beam of electrons rather than light and a magnet for the lenses 0 Resolving power is much higher than a light microscope due to the shorter wavelength of the electron beam 0 High magnification 0 Disadvantage the specimen has to be in a vacuum and be dehydrated Transmission electron microscope 0 Method of choice to resolve internal cell structures Limitation must preserve and dehydrate samples and be in a vacuum requires thin sectioning and must increase contrast of cell using electron dense stains Scanning electron microscopes is for surfaces and transmission is for internal