NFS 3020 2/21-2/27 Notes
NFS 3020 2/21-2/27 Notes NFS 3020
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurora Moberly on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 3020 at Southern Utah University taught by Artis Grady in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Sports Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Test 2 3/4/16 Goal: 94 Protein - Amino acid building blocks, contain nitrogen - Essential Amino Acids: Not made by the body, must get from food - Non-Essential: Made by the body - Complete Foods: Have all essential amino acids - Incomplete Foods: Don't have all essential amino acids - Can get all amino acids by having a varied diet - Functions of Proteins and Amino acids in Human Metabolism: - Structure, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, movement, transport, immunity, acid-base balance, fluid balance, energy - Body builders get a lot of protein - Runners, gymnasts don't get a lot of protein - Amino acids aren’t stored anywhere in the body, they reside in the blood and body fluids - If there are excess amino acids in the body they are de-animated (broken down in a process called deanimation) in the liver which means they take out the nitrogen and turn it into urea (excreted in the urine) this leaves a carbon residue that is converted into carbohydrate fats - Nitrogen balance studies are used to determine usage of protein - Amount will vary with an increase in exercise - In an athlete their protein requirement is dependent on energy intake, degree of training, intensity of training - Chart represents how protein travels through the body: - Protein needs will increase with growth, starting an exercise program, calorie restriction due to diet, anorexia, depleted glycogen stores - How well a person utilizes protein depends on body composition, activity level, energy and CHO adequacy, protein quality, hormones, illness and injury - To build muscles it takes extra exercise, appropriate protein intake, adequate calories from carbs - To add 1 pound of muscle requires additional protein of 10-14 grams per day - Body can add only two pounds of muscle per week under the best of circumstances Person gm/kg Sedentary Adult 0.8 Recreational Exerciser, 1.1- Adult 1.6 Endurance Athlete, Adult 1.3- 1.6 Growing Teen Athlete 1.6- 2.0 Adult Building Muscle Mass 1.6- 1.8 Athlete Restricting Calories 1.8- 2.0 Upper Requirement for 2.0 Adult - Examples: Body builder 200lbs 0.7-0.8g/lb 140-160g protein/day - Marathoner 150lbs 0.6-0.7g/lb 90-105g protein/day - Young Gymnast 80lbs 0.7-0.9g/lb 56-72g protein/day - If intake is too low there is decreased muscle mass, greater risk of injury, chronic fatigue and poor muscle strength, BMR becomes depressed, major cause of amenorrhea, possible sports anemia during early stages of exercise - If intake is excessive there is often eating protein instead of getting adequate CHO, increased urination and possible dehydration, possible calcium loss (long-term), ketosis may occur, high protein is often also high fat, unbalanced diet, costly so less money for other foods - Guides for protein are for resistance exercise (aerobic exercisers require less): - 4 equally spaced protein-containing meals per day: 0.25-0.3g protein/kg/meal - 1 pre-sleep meal: .6g protein/kg/meal - No benefit of eating protein during exercise - Studies have found no difference in protein synthesis if given before, 1hr post, 3hr post exercise - Amount needed to stimulate muscle recovery is small - Complete proteins are best - Repeated small doses of protein over time are more effective than one large amount - Giving greater amounts shows no added benefit - Post Exercise Protein Intake: - Less protein is needed if carbs are included - Ratio of carbs to protein should be 2.5-4 g carb to 1 g of protein - Examples of foods with this ratio: Chocolate milk, Banana + ¼ cup almonds, 1 apple + 1 c. skim milk, bagel with peanut butter, ect. - Leucine Hypothesis: - Amino acid leucine triggers muscle protein synthesis - 2.5g leucine per meal is suggested with 30g protein - Leucine is plentiful in whey protein - If meal includes high quality protein foods enough leucine is likely to be present Nutrition Assessment - Nutrition Assessment: Detailed information that is nutrition related and relevant is obtained - Critical steps to success: Assessment, nutrition diagnosis, goal setting, action plan, evaluation and reassessment - Nutrition Assessment done using A to E guidelines - Anthropometric: Body composition analysis - All % body fat measurements have a percentage error of about 3-4% - Methods: Hydrostatic weighing, body plethysmography (Bod Pod), skin folds, bioelectrical impedance (BIA), infrared interactance (Futrex) - Medical Methods: DEXA (Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging), CT (Computer tomography), Hydrometry, Neutron activity, Whole body potassium - Body Mass Index (BMI): Uses height and weight to estimate body composition, not very helpful in athletes, moderately correlated to % body fat, single value used for all genders, heights if 20+ - The problem with athletes using BMI is that if they are muscular their weight will be off on the BMI chart Body Fat Ranges General Optimal for Risky for Health Population Athletes Men 15-18% 5-12% <5% Women 20-25% 12-20% <10% Body Fat Standards Classifications Image Males Females Essential Fat ---- 3-5% 11-13% Very Low Fat Skinny 7-10% 14-17% Low Fat Trim 10-13% 17-20% Average Fat Normal 13-17% 20-27% Above Normal Fat Plump 17-25% 27-31% Very High Fat Fat 25+% 31+% - Biochemical: - Lab tests on biological fluids: Macronutrients, micronutrients, organ function - Clinical: - Medical history, review of physical systems, energy requirements - Dietary: - Collection of food intake information, evaluation of the diet - Prospective: Food diary, details research methods, happening right now - Retrospective: Food frequency, 24-hour recall, usual intake, thinking back - The analysis is only as good as the data that is collected - Evaluation of diet: - Computer programs if you have detail - Exchange groups - Food group recommendations - Environmental: - What affects ones ability to obtain, prepare or consume foods/beverages - Living conditions, lifestyle, daily routine, culture, psychological influences, willingness - Stages of Change - Once you have the assessment give your nutrition diagnosis, goal setting, action plan Fluids - Water Functions: Transport, removes metabolic wastes, building material for cells, protection, water cannot be compressed, osmotic pressure along with electrolytes, senses, chemical reactions, lubricant, solvent, temperature regulation - Temperature Regulation: - For every ml of water evaporated .58kcal of heat is dissipated - Body Water Locations: - Most water in the body is found inside the cells (intracellular fluid), 65% - The extra-cellular fluid includes water found in both vascular tissue and between cells (interstitial fluid), 35% - The location of water is controlled by electrolytes, concentrations of these ions is what regulates the movement of water - Potassium is the major electrolyte in intracellular fluid - Sodium is predominate in extracellular fluid - Water Balance: - Output of water through kidneys, large intestine, lungs, skin - Input of water through water intake, liquid food, water in food, metabolism - There is an output and intake of 2+ liters per day for normal adult - DRI for water: Women 2.7 liters/day Men 3.7 liters/day - Not adequate for athletes - Additional Water is Needed for: - Children and elderly - Diseases: Diarrhea, vomiting, fever - Surgery, burns, blood loss - Medications - Forced air or heated environments - Pregnancy or breastfeeding - Alcohol or caffeine intake - Hot/cold environments and high altitudes - Exercise Fluid Loss in mL for Normal Weather 68F Warm Weather 85F Exercise in Warm 70kg Athlete Weather Insensible Loss Skin 350 350 350 Respiratory 350 250 650 Urine 1400 1200 500 Feces 100 100 100 Sweat 100 1400 5000 Total 2300 3300 6600 - Regulating Fluid Balance - Kidneys do fluid reabsorption - Hypothalamus regulates fluid reabsorption and thirst - Water is lost via eccrine sweat glands all over the body - If sweat is excessive then regulatory mechanisms can’t keep up with loss - Thirst may no be a good indicator of water in athletes and physically active people - A loss of 5% body water can cause a decrease of 20-30% in work performance - Physiological Responses to Dehydration: - Increased: GI distress, plasma osmolality, blood viscosity, heart rate, core temp where sweating begins, skin blood flow, core temp, muscle glycogen use - Decreased: Plasma volume, splanchnic and renal blood flow, central blood volume, central venous pressure, cardiac filling pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, sweat rate and skin blood at a given core temp, maximal sweat rate, maximal skin blood flow, performance, endurance capacity - Hydration is more critical than the need for carbohydrates in delaying onset of fatigue - Beneficial Responses of Adequate Fluid Intake During Exercise: - Decrease heart rate, increase stroke volume, increase cardiac output, increase skin blood flow, decreased core temperature, decrease in perceived exertion, increased performance - Before Event/Practice: - DRI plus as needed for individual - Be well hydrated all the time-pale urine - 2-3 hours before drink 2-3 cups of fluid (5-7ml per kg body weight 4 hours before, 3-5ml per kg body weight 2 hours before) - 15 minutes before drink 1-2 cups water - During an Event: - Drink 6-12oz of fluid every 15-20 minutes - Do not exceed sweat loss - Water is appropriate for consumption during exercise lasting less than 1 hour - Event 1-3 hours drink 2-4 cups per hour of liquids containing 4-8% carbs and 250mg sodium - Longer than 3 hours drink 2-4 cups per hour of liquids containing 4-8% carbs and 500mg sodium - Post Event: - Drink generously-water, juice, lemonade, milk or sports drinks - Drink enough fluid to replace what was lost in sweat - For each pound of weight loss during the activity need to replace 3 cups of fluid - Avoid carbonation it gives a feeling of fullness - Consider taste- the yummier the drink the more the athlete will have - Take in adequate CHO to replace glycogen - Salty foods may also be eaten at this time to replace electrolytes and assist rehydration - Hyponatremia: - Fluid/electrolyte disorder - Sodium level in blood is too low - Rapid influx of water into the brain causing swelling - Severe neurological symptoms - Caused by excessive water intake along with large sodium loss in sweat - DRI guides for sodium intake do not apply to active athletes - Categories of Sports Beverages: - Water - Flavored water - 4-8% carbohydrate drinks - High carbohydrate beverages - Meal replacement beverages - Energy drinks - Other - Figuring out % Carbohydrates: - 1. Find mL per serving and grams of total carbohydrate - 2. (Grams of total CHO/mL per serving)*100= %CHO - During activity we want 4-8% CHO - Use fluids with a higher %CHO for after an event
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