History of Sparta Notes
History of Sparta Notes HIST 3003-001
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Espinal on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3003-001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Bradford in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see History of Sparta in History at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
August 31 The Spartans Video 0 300 Spartans met the Persians at Thermopylae in 480 BCE 0 They were outnumbered roughly 40 to 1 0 Sparta was famous for its frugality and its fighters they did not have philosophers poets or artists like Athens did 0 Money was outlawed equality was enforced male homosexuality was encouraged really it was more bisexuality since they did have wives back home weak children were exterminated and women enjoyed equality that was essentially unheard of at the time 0 It was the first Greek state to outline the rights of its citizens 0 Helen of Troy was once called Helen of Sparta 0 Spartans left few clues behind what was left behind was either buried or destroyed 0 Unlike the Athenians the Spartans were famous for not writing about themselves most accounts of Spartan culturesociety were written by outside sources 0 The Spartans claimed that their kings were the descendants of Heracles 0 The Spartans wanted to turn the Messenians into helots however slaves were supposed to be outsiders not fellow Greeks so this was somewhat looked down upon by other Greeks 0 It took two wars each lasting around 20 years for the Spartans to take over the Messenians 0 Spartans also demonstrated that they were full Spartan citizens by taking part in the militia 0 The staple meat of the Spartans was pork their staple food in the mess was the quotblack brothquot 0 Pork blood vinegar and salt boiled The First Messenign War 0 The Spartans took an oath that they would not return home until they had conquered Messenae 0 In their battle against the Spartans the Messenians had nothing to lose since they were fighting for their freedom and fought until they had nothing left 0 Their war was essentially a war of aristocrat versus aristocrat and the impoverished slaves would be enslaved by the winner Se tember 2 0 Spartans liked to listen to music dance drink wine and admire nature 0 Their wine is not what we envision wine to be it was mixed one part wine to three parts water it was also infamous for being rather terrible Spartans were not known to drink for pleasure 0 The first date that begins archaic Greek history is 776 BCE which was when the first Olympic Games were held Video The most important poleis plural of polis had the ability to simply show up at Delphi and be heard by the oracle others were not allowed to do this As a private individual one would go and hope to be seen as an envoy or representative of a polis an offering would be made by said representative Only the priests could interpret what the oracle said There was supposedly a crack in the ground that had a mysterious vapour emitting from it this was supposed to be how the oracles were getting their visions 0 Archaeologists have tried to find this but have been unsuccessful Tyrtaeus The Spartan poet who lived during the Second Messenian War Se tember 4 Hoplites had to furnish their own equipment only wealthy citizens could afford decent armour and weapons Some of the poorer citizens would still fight hoping that they could take armour from a fallen comrade or foe They could also obtain upward social mobility from glory on the battlefield The Gree A man39s entire worth was based upon his performance on the battlefield Greek heroes were wellknown for putting their soldiers39 safety above their own Since most Greeks were farmers people would settle disputes by having small short battles in their own backyards Hoplites wore a tunic with a metal chest piece over it greaves on their legs and a Corinthian helmet which severely limited their vision and hearing They also carried a large shield and had a curved sword which was used for hacking off limbs used as a last resort the spear was their primary weapon Between 700 and 400 BCE soldiers were not professional they were essentially weekend warriors who underwent some sort of basic training Most battles were fought close to home each soldier was required to carry their own food garlic olives bread cheese and some dried fish that they carried in a sack on a stick they needed 3 days39 worth of food one day going to the battle the day of the battle and the day coming home from the battle Citizens would vote whether or not to make war against other citystates Hoplites would bring one or two slaves with them to carry their armour some also brought women with them Merchants also sold goods including prostitutes at the battles The Greeks performed a blood sacrifice to their gods before the battle the entrails were studied by the generals and a priest After divine permission the battle would begin They lined up in a phalanx 8 men wide 8 men deep their shields formed a protective wall around them the weaker soldiers were in the middle while the veterans were at the front to lead the charge and at the back to stop anyone from turning and running away from the battle Unfortunately once the battle started they could not hear the general39s orders since the Corinthian helmet covered their ears The hoplites sometimes grew desperate having to use their sword to stab at unprotected areas such as the groin they would also fight handtohand often clawing at one another or pulling on an enemy s beard During times of war citizens had to pay property taxes to help fund the war In the field Greeks often had to forage for their own food The Spartans were the Greek ideal for what a soldier should be At age 7 boys were taken from their mothers and for ten years they were taught how to be soldiers Spartan officers were rough on their men they were expected to steal food they were never given quite enough food to eat instead they had to steal food it was thought that if they were good at this they would be good foragers out in the field The Spartans also took pride in their appearance in regards to their battle attire as well as their carefully braided hair It was difficult to maneuver in combat since the phalanx was not very mobile 500 BCE The Persian King Darius began taking over Greek citystates 490 BCE The Athenians defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon By the 5th century BCE hoplites could no longer fight close to home they had to go on long marches or travel by sea 431 BCE The Spartans attacked the Athenians believing that the Athenians wielded too much power this started the Peloponnesian War 0 Sparta and Athens began employing mercenaries these mercenaries although effective fighters would sometimes change sides on the day of the battle if offered more money Discussion 0 What factors made Sparta so dominant 0 Better tactics more intense training the only professional soldiers not citizen soldiers had been training since they were 7 years old could psych out their enemies psychological warfare 0 How would this be applied to the US today and what if US politicians had to fight in the battles that they authorised 0 US citizens would have more control over declaring war Congress would not be quite so quick to start wars under false pretenses our military tech would be far less advanced since citizens had to pay for their own armaments September 9 and 11 There was a new class of farmers and merchants who could afford the hoplite equipment Phidias thought that they should be armed and fight in the phalanx however once the middle class armed themselves there was no going back to aristocratic rule In the middle of the 7th century Phidias39 army met the Spartan army and the Spartans were defeated At this point most societies were creating hoplite armies In some cities the aristocrats who were often leaders of armies attempted to use their in uence in the army to become the ruler of the city this happened in Corinth The Corinthian aristocrats who were kicked out of Corinth went to Phidias to appeal to him Phidias and his hoplite army met the Corinthians and Phidias was killed in the fighting min points on the honlites O Hoplites named for the shield the haplan 0 They were citizens O This was the first time in history that a place had citizens for soldiers The Spartans moved their phalanx in time they even trained by dancing to keep themselves in time Then they jabbed at their enemies with their spears They attempted to break the opposing phalanxes apart These pushes against the opponent usually lasted about 20 minutes Those at the back were responsible for trying to push their phalanx forward if they felt their phalanx being pushed back it was their job as a good citizen to stay and fight however some realized that if they dropped their shield and ran they would get away Some hoplites when incredibly frightened would tremble sometimes their armor could be heard rattling in Sparta quottremblersquot did not exist in society they were completely socially ostracized as it was seen as disgraceful The overall objective of Spartan society was to produce soldiers and to produce mothers of soldiers Only two people could get a grave marker with their name on it 0 A male who died on the battlefield 0 A female who died during childbirth If someone did not make it through the agogae they were put in a special class that still fought in a phalanx but were not considered citizens The premier deity of the Spartans was Artemis Athena The Messenian hero was Aristomenes spcheck spelling It was supposedly adultery that was the Messenian downfall A herdsman fell in love with a Messenian man39s wife and Vice versa she eventually told him the best way to get into Messenia he went back and told the Spartans they capitalised on this When the kings did not like what the Assembly was doing with its power they added that they the kings Video September 14 Aristocrats trace their ancestry back to a god one could not become an aristocrat The kings were interested in a strong army the aristocracy wanted to hang on to their power which came from their land the ordinary phalanx member wanted land and an equal share in the spoils of war Tyrtaeus said that a good citizen stood in the phalanx and did not ee The Spartans had the only standing Spartan army in Greece this was due to their unique circumstances 0 Meaning always being prepared in case the Messenian helots decided to revolt Tyrtaeus is considered the first eyewitness of our time No one was completely certain as to whether Lycurgus existed or not the first documented appearance of him was in Herodotus The Spartans were wellknown for kicking out foreigners not just out of Sparta but out of Lacedaemonian To them there was Sparta Laconia and then Xenos everyone else xenos foreigner Judges Law quotrememberersquot they did not remember specific laws they memorized case law and used precedents to determine the outcome of both cases Lycurgus did not want laws to be written down when laws are written down people tend to want to change the wording Even when laws began to be written down and posted in public many citizens were illiterate so they did not actually know what the laws were quotThe Spartansquot From the age of 12 onwards Spartan training became more intense Music and dancing were regarded as essential reading however was not taught more than necessary The Spartans spent many hours practicing war music which helped them learn to change direction as a single unit At the age of 20 Spartan males were sent to their specific messes entry to these messes was not guaranteed however election was by a vote of existing members if one were black balled and not allowed into a mess one was seen as a failure Rich and poor young and old met here as equals The dish of the day was always quotblack soupquot 0 Pig39s blood and vinegar Most other Greeks had a diet that was roughly 75 percent vegetarian but Spartans ate more meat than other Greeks this was one of the reasons that they were so fit and battle ready Sparta was one of the first societies to introduce a type of social contract The Council started as an aristocratic council but was later opened to the best citizens The council was the last honor a citizen could receive There were 30 members counting the two kings the kings only had one vote but had incredible prestige All the Spartiates ate together in their mess each night They ate with other members of their phalanx supposed to form cohesion The youngest that someone could be battleready was 21 Greeks thought that sending a teenager into battle was obscene In the rest of Greece men usually married in their 30s or 40s when they had property and could support a family In Sparta they usually married in their 20s During training they were given one garment that was supposed to last them from ages 1318 the time when they learned most of the combat training many simply went naked to make their garment last longer At 19 they are at the stage just before they are adults they begin to train the younger boys they also join the Spartan secret police this was not to watch other Spartans but rather the helots From the age of 21 the Spartans would join a phalanx and live in the barracks In Sparta the free were freer than anywhere else in the world the slaves more enslaved September 18 The Spartans wanted the helots to think that they were constantly under watch There was no blood guilt if a Spartiate killed a helot for no reason because every year the Spartans declared war on the helots Video The Spartans Sparta was a militaristic state run by the warrior elite Spartan men lived mainly apart from their women Although they have been allies against Persia Athens and Sparta became paranoid of one another Sparta had been secluded and cut off from everyone else thus during the Persian Wars their society was untouched Athens had been occupied by Persia the citizens forced to ee The Spartans had few ambitions other than maintaining a warrior society of hoplites The trireme was a useful tool that Athens wielded against Persia many of the oarsmen were from the lower classes after the war these men wanted a say in state matters The champion of the Athenian oarsmen was Pericles He knew that in order to secure power he needed to distance himself from the nobles Thus citizens were able to run for office rather than aristocrats running everything The process of ostracism could be problematic if someone did not like another they could convince others to vote to ostracize that person and they would be barred from setting foot in Athens again for 10 years Sparta famously had no walls it was said that its walls were its young men and its borders were the points of their spears Athens39 democracy excluded women slaves and foreigners The Spartan system emphasized the common good duty and cohesion However their slaves the helots were fellow countrymen this was looked down upon by other Greeks Furthermore other Greeks thought it was strange that Sparta allowed women such freedom and equality Athenian women were to be neither seen nor heard women in Athens led a very sheltered life they did not allow them to become literate Life for Athenian women essentially took place inside four walls Girls in Sparta were fed the same rations as boys and taught to be as competitive they exercised together in the nude it was supposed to banish prudery and facilitate fitness Spartan dancers were famous for their vitality At children were sent to the agoge Male bonding was compulsory at 12 a boy was placed with an older man aged between 20 and 30 he acted as a surrogate parent but these two were also lovers Some men had difficulties getting used to married life with women as their only sexual relationships had been with women Women were fed and treated well since healthy women were thought to produce healthy Spartan boys In Sparta women could be property owners in their own right they could also choose whom to marry of even if they married at all In Athens silence was a sign of good breeding in Sparta women were much more outspoken Spartan mothers were not nearly as nurturing as in other areas of Greece when boys went off to war they would tell them quotWith your shield or on itquot meaning quotCome back victorious or don39t come back at allquot Sparta Festivals and dramas Used masks when they put on plays some were rather grotesque Usually the intent was to get the audience to concentrate on gestures and movement not on the actors looks Always used masks at their festivals There would be dancing food drink After conquering Messenia the Spartans wanted to conquer Arcadia They asked at Delphi if this was possible the oracle at Delphi said no this was asking too much M 0 He strengthened the power of the ephors O Introduced the custom of joining the ephors to the kings as their counselors The Spartans tried to make alliances with everyone in the Peloponnesus Peloponnesian League Spartan kings claimed to be the ancestors of Heracles Video quotEngineering an Empire The Persian Empirequot Around 3000 years ago the ancient Persians were in desperate need of water They utilized underground aquifers to direct water where they needed it Around 700 BCE the various Persian tribes were united into one empire Cyrus the Great came to power in 559 BCE By 554 BCE had had crushed his rivals and become the undisputed ruler of Persia The Persians were borrowers they would borrow technology from civilizations whom they conquered Cyrus was a very different king he refused to enslave his subjects He allowed his new subjects quite a bit of autonomy 0 As long as they paid tribute they could live how they wanted to He freed the Jews when he conquered Babylon this was unprecedented He was referred to as quotmessiahquot in the Hebrew Bible After he died in 530 BCE Persia39s future hung in the balance Darius the Great took the throne after him Darius rebuilt the old capital of Susa He wanted a capital all his own his engineers and architects worked on a new one called Persephalus The workers were not slaves however like Cyrus Darius did not approve of this he paid his workers for their efforts Under Darius39 leadership the Persian Empire grew exponentially As Persia began to grow the Greeks grew more nervous of the Persians The two armies faced one another at the Battle of Marathon Cyrus not only freed the Jews but gave them money to rebuild their temple He had a habit of rebuilding his subjects39 structures which had been destroyed by his rivals The king of Lydia Croesus was looking for a proper oracle the one at Delphi was the only one who was worthy to him He was given the advice that he should seek an alliance with Sparta who was known as the most powerful Greek state He was stopped by Cyrus Spartans tried to help everyone thought that there was a general ceasefire due to the cold Cyrus agreed but came back and attacked it was the end of Croesus Persians came to the coast of Greece and began taking the cities located here October 5 Cleomones did his best to prepare the Greeks for their battle against Persia Mardonius was the nephewinlaw of Darius connected to the royal family Thracians made a surprise attack on the Persians Mardonius injured A Mede and a Persian came up with the idea of sending a seaborn invasion which led to the Battle of Marathon Persian infantry was light and composed of archers and spearmen Archers drove their shield into the ground fired arrows spearmen were there to protect the archers The Persians had fought the Greeks before and were not impressed Delos was the most sacred island to the Ionians and the Athenians Persians landed there and tried to win over the islanders rather than destroying it Persians were masters of siege warfare took Rhetria easily They turned and landed at Marathon A runner ran to Sparta and told them that the Persians had landed Spartans would sacrifice an animal and examine the liver before leaving the boundaries of Laconia The Athenian generals were arguing over whether to fight or not Miltiades and 4 other generals wanted to fight the others did not The Spartans 2000strong arrived after the Athenians had already forced the Persians to sail back home Miltiades suggested that the Athenians give him an expedition so that he could go take back territories that the Persians had taken They did but Miltiades was unsuccessful he had promised to be successful but was not so in their eyes he had lied lying to the Athenian people was the worst crime that one could commit so they put him on trial since he was the hero of Marathon they did not kill him charged him a large fine equivalent to about 18 of Athens annual revenue Video For 5 years in a row Themistocles got the secondmost votes when voting for whom to ostracize Spartans called a meeting in Sparta for their allies and Athens Spartan king would command the land forces Athenians wanted to command the sea but no one would follow them thus the two Spartan kings were the commanders of the land and sea forces 300 Spartans under Leonidas were to hold the Persians at Thermopylae The Sum Leonidas had been king for 10 years when the Persians began to invade Greece Persians asked oaths of loyalty from the Greek citystates some capitulated but others looked to Athens and Sparta for guidance The Spartans put themselves at the head of the Persian resistance The Spartans who fought with Leonidas at Thermopylae were all married older men with sons to carry on their legacy Before the battle on the last day the Spartans stripped naked exercised rubbed oil on themselves and braided one another39s hair Persian spies reported this back to Xerxes and he found it laughable Militarilyspeaking Thermopylae was insignificant but it did delay the Persians by about a week w The Persian Wars 490479 BCE The Battle of Marathon 0 The Hellenic League The Lacedaemonians and their allies The Athenians and their allies Triremes were essential especially to the Athenians Delphi Apollo and the oracles Video Thermopylae and Artemisium 480 BCE Decisive B ltlesuThermonvlg 480 BCE Persians had approximately 250000 men Sparta had only 300 The Persian Empire took up roughly 23 of the known world Xerxes39 father Darius had been defeated by the Greeks at Marathon Xerxes was determined to not have the same fate befall him If the Spartans did not stop the Persians at Thermopylae the Persians had a clear route to Athens Thermopylae quothot gatesquot Spartans could not take up any career other than the military normal daytoday tasks were done by helots Leonidas had set out for Thermopylae during a Spartan religious festival which was thought to be bad luck Xerxes39 army was lightarmed the Spartans were the complete opposite Xerxes waited 4 days before engaging the Spartans could not believe that they were standing up to him On the 5th day he demanded that they turn over the weapons Leonidas replied quotCome get themquot The Phalanx was 18 men deep 64 across Persians had a hard time penetrating the Spartan shield wall On the 2nd day of the battle the Persians realized that this was not a style of fighting with which they were accustomed Xerxes sent in the Immortals his elite fighting group 0 10000 strong Xerxes personal guard 0 Had bows spears and daggers The Persians were more used to longrange warfare On day 3 the Persians out anked the Spartans Leonidas knew that this would be their last stand sent the other Greeks home while the Spartans stayed behind Leonidas fell and the Spartans rushed forward to save his body Xerxes withdrew his troops and decided to finish off the Spartans with bow and arrow instead 0 Spartans found the bow to be cowardly The Spartan sacrifice gave the other Greeks time to regroup Herodotus was uncertain as to why Xerxes had mutilated Leonidas39 body since the Persians always admired bravery it could have been that he was still angry from when the Spartans killed the Persian envoys sent to Sparta October 12and 14 The Athenian Trireme 150 feet long 18 feet wide manned by 170 oarsmen They were swift and fast 480 BCE Greece fought the Battle of Salamis and won they won the Aegean in the process The Battle of Salamis 480 BCE Early sea battles involved triremes running into one another and then fighting one another on deck Later the Greeks began ramming opposing ships and then pulling away Themistocles Athenian general Xerxes Persian king The Spartans thought the way to fight the war was to use the eet to hold off the Persians Themistocles wanted to fight a fullblown sea battle Themistocles wanted to force a sea battle so he sent a messenger to Xerxes told him that the Greeks were arguing about what to do next gave Xerxes some true information and some false information The Greeks were hanging back but ready to fight There is an eyewitness account of the battle by Aeschylus It was a disaster for the Persians Themistocles let the captains of the boats vote for who was most responsible for the victory they voted for themselves first Themistocles second the Spartans also honored him which was unusual thing for them to do for a foreigner After the battle back in Athens people decided that Themistocles would have benefited from a victory or loss and he was not elected general again later ostracized eventually condemned to death The Battle of Plataea 479 BCE Mardonius sent envoys to the Athenians to tell them that he was willing to deal with them if they came to the Persian side he would give them money to rebuild Athens would keep their own government would essentially rule themselves but be part of Persia the Athenians as a state would be the satrapy of Greece 0 satrapy A province governed by a satrap which was essentially the governor Pausanias Spartan regent Mardonius Persian commander Pausanias was young but commanding an army of 5000 Spartiates roughly 35000 helots and 40000 other Laconians no Greek had commanded an army of that size before Both sides agreed that the side who attacked first would lose There was strife between the Spartans Pausanias and a battalion commander hepatosopy Examination of the livers of sacrificed animals as a technique of divination this was what the Spartans did when they sacrificed an animal before going into battle October 19 quotWarriorsquot Video 0 Hoplon shield weighs roughly 15 pounds also a weapon 0 Children who were deemed worthy of living were sent to the agoge at age 7 0 Their handtohand combat was similar to today39s MMA 0 When it was made an Olympic sport the Spartans were not allowed to compete 0 They had a tendency to maim or kill their opponents 0 More Greeks fought on the side of the Persians than on the Greek sides resisting the Persians 0 The Kopeece was one of the first weapons that Spartans in the agoge learned how to use 0 Means quotI cutquot in Greek 0 To Spartans the sword was not a symbol of pride or glory it was a tool to be utilized 0 The Persians burned Athens to the ground 0 Although other Spartans specifically the kings were hesitant to help Athens Pausanias a general knew that they would likely have to help Athens defeat the Persians 0 Wore a cuirass greaves helmet 0 The weaponry of the day relied upon bronze most readily available metal of the day 0 Each piece of armor and weaponry was made of a single sheet of bronze 0 Before Pausanias decided to help Athens he sought council from the oracle at Delphi it said yes in order to avenge the Spartans at Thermopylae needed to kill Persian general Mardonius 0 The hoplite run Spartans would run up to the Persians and attempt to dispatch of them before the Persians could utilize their archers 0 Made it a part of basic training 0 The Persians made the first move at Plataea 0 Pausanias pretended to retreat Persians followed after them the Spartans turned around and engaged them it caught the Persians off guard 0 The hoplite run helped the Spartans take the Persians by surprise 0 Supposedly a Spartan picked up a rock and threw it at Mardonius39 head killing him 0 The Persians lacked the cohesion that the Spartans possessed October 26 Pentekontaetia 478 Formation of the Delian League Pausanias The Spartan regent for the infant son of Leonidas 0 Did not appreciate that when he went back to Sparta he was treated like a normal Spartan 0 He acted almost like a Persian treated the other Greeks essentially like helots O Allies asked the Athenians to take over command of the Greeks Pausanias sent a letter to Xerxes saying that if Xerxes agreed to marry a royal daughter to him he could turn the tide of the war Pausanias ordered back to Sparta or declared an outlaw continued to send messengers to Persia but they never came back he had been putting a note at the bottom of the message instructing the Persians to kill the messenger Pausanias ed Sparta sought refuge at a temple was sacrilege to kill someone in a temple they walled up the entrance waited for him to look like he was about to die and then led him out of the temple and let him die outside the temple Themistocles the Athenian It was rumoured that he had been part of the conspiracy with Pausanias Athens passed a death sentence on him he ed to Persia where they accepted him he lived out a life of leisure in Persia Delos was sacred to the Ionians Trireme Tactics 1 Ramming into one another fighting handtohand like on land 2 Coming at the opposing trireme from its side 3 Heading towards opposing trireme moving at last second and shearing off the oars to disable the trireme 4 Sailing through two opponents39 ships and then turning around to meet them 47039s Forced entry of Naxos Can you accept the benefits of the alliance without being in it No O Naxos tried this but the Athenians attacked them The Athenians made an offer that stated that if they did not want to do the actual fighting they could pay the Athenians money to buildmaintain the ships and the Athenians would do the fighting for them 469 Accession of Archidamus at Sparta 0 quotLeader of the Damosquot grandson of the previous king 467 Battle of the Eurymedon 465 Revolt of Thasos Once the Persians were defeated could a polis withdraw from the alliance No Even after the fighting was done the Athenians would not let poleis withdraw from the Delian League considered it a revolt The Great Earthauge 464 BCE Video Magnitude 72 Pamisos River dropped 15 feet in certain places This resulted in the helots revolting 0 464461 Third Messenian War The Sum After the great earthquake the Messenian helots revolted Sparta appealed to the Athenians and their other allies for help However they were worried that the Athenians might either try to help the helots or spread democracy possibly spread democracy amongst the Spartan citizens Sparta declared war on Athens in 431 BCE After the earthquake the Spartans sent a runner to Athens to ask for help Cimon decided to send help by the time the Athenians arrived the Spartans had gotten the situation under control and dismissed the Athenians they took offense to this Since Cimon had convinced them to help the Spartans he was ostracized W Took 3 talents to commission a trireme and 1 talent a month to keep it at sea 0 Athens annual income was 800 talents Cruising range per day was 3545 miles Had a 200 man crew The standard sailing season was eight months Pericles Leader of the Athenians fought wars using their navy had a principle that they would not risk the eet Athens built long walls aimed to defend from Sparta never breached It was a declaration that the Athenians thought the Spartans were a threatenemy 2 The Debate in Sparta Archidamus The ephors The Athenians Pericles Offer of arbitration quotFriendshipquot of Pericles and Archidamus Xanthippus and Leotychidas O Xanthippus was the father of Pericles Leotychidas was the grandfather of Archidamus The Athenians lay siege to Potidaea The event with Corcyra is what really triggered the war Battle of Sybota Corcyra and Corinth hated one another The Battle of Sybota took place in 433 BC between Corcyra and Corinth and was one of the immediate catalysts for the Peloponnesian War Corinth had been in dispute with Corcyra an old Corinthian colony which no longer wanted to remain under Corinthian in uence Corcyra which had the second largest navy in Greece at the time allied with Athens an enemy of Corinth Corinth was allied with Sparta The Athenians ended up helping the Corcyraeans Corinth saw this as breaking the treaty went to Sparta to complain Athens sent ten ships to Corcyra to reinforce the Corcyraean eet with instructions not to fight the Corinthian eet unless they attempted to land on the island Both the Corinthians and Corcyraeans claimed victory the Corinthians having won the first battle and the Corcyraeans having avoided a Corinthian occupation of their island Pericles offered to arbitrate the situation but asked that the judges be selected by him Pericles39 Strategy Long walls All Athenians stay in Athens Patience Secure the navy No attempt to expand empire or going off on adventures 6000 talents in reserve 0 A decree was passed stating that anyone who suggested spending it on something else would be executed 100 triremes were kept in home waters 431 Beginning of the War Plataea and the Thebans Archidamus and invasion Athenian response Thucydides tells us that the real reason for the start of the war was the growth of Athenian power Spartans felt threatened Athenians wanted to go out and fight Pericles would not let them 0 The plague 0 Fall of Potidaea 0 2535 of population was decimated by the plague 0 Spartans avoid Attica 0 Pericles assailed 0 Death of Pericles O Died of the plague left a power vacuum 0 Cleon took over power 0 The close quarters of Athens were a perfect breeding ground for the plague 0 This was a time when the moral foundation of Athens was shaken Strengths and We messes of the Spartans 0 Strengths 0 Land battles 0 Were not stricken with the plague used the plague that struck Athens to their advantage 0 Had better leadership after Pericles died 0 Weaknesses 0 Sea battles O Stubborn 0 Very reclusive 0 Strategy Avoid Athens and the plague let the plague take a toll on the Athenians while Athens is weakened take other cities allied with Athens
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