Week 1- History of Forensic Anthropology
Week 1- History of Forensic Anthropology ANTH 0630
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Ariza on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 0630 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Alicia Grosso in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Forensic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Chapter 1 History of Forensic Anthropology Forensic Anthropology s first ladies were Salome and Agrippina Salome identified a lover by receiving his head and pointing out the missing tooth on both the deceased s head and her lover Agrippia identified her enemy by a discolored tooth Forensics defined forensic latin Of a forum or public place Application of physicalbiological anthropology to the legal process Early Formative Years 1800s1938 gt Started in Harvard Medical College when Dr George Parkman went missing after having a fight with his friend and colleague John Webster 0 Littleton the janitor one day looked in John Webster s classroom wall and found a body John Webster a Chemistry professor was accused of Parkman s murder 0 They used Parkman s found skeleton in court This was the first time it ever happened in a US court 0 Anatomists Oliver Wendell Holmes I and J effries Wyman 0 Nathan Cooley Keep was from Harvard s Dental School He said that Parkman s dentures had a certain peculiarity O The dentures from the body found and Parkman s dentures matched Webster was convicted gt The Luetgert Murder Chicago 1897 Adolf Luetgert and his wife were having a lot of constant fights Wife disappeared They found Potash and Arsenic in Adolf s factory Also found 4 bone fragments along with a gold ring with the wife s initials engraved 0 George Dorsey an expert witness in anthropology looked at the bone fragments and stated that those bone fragments belonged to the wife and that Adolf was guilty gt Thomas Dwight 18431911 0 He was considered The Father of Forensic Anthropology 0 He was a Parkman Professor which was an honorary title given to professors O O 0000 the title was named after Dr George Parkman from earlier in the lecture I Wrote articles gave lectures I Wrote an essay on skeletal ID regarding sex and age 0 Has an osteology section of warren Anatomy Museum gt Ales Hrdlicka O Became the first curator of Physical Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institute 0 He was also and FBI consultant in 1936 which was inspiration for the show Bones 20th Century Era of Anatomical Collection gt Mostly unclaimed autopsied bodies 0 Osteobiography the identification of human remains based on bones 0 Population research gt This was during the Industrialization era so the bodies were preantibiotics and therefore had degenerative diseases such as Tb and syphilis There are two collections 1 HamannTodd Collection Started out at the Western Reserve University in Cleveland Ohio Has about 3000 primates in collection It was later moved to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History At this time the bodies for the collection were usually unclaimed bodies that were middle age or older mostly males 2 Terry Collection Started out by Dr Robert Terry and Mildred Trotter woman 9 Unclaimed bodies demo data disease cause of death In 1955 the Willed Body Law of Missouri was passed 9 With the passing of this new law people started to donate their bodies to science 9 The donation of bodies allowed the demographics of collections to grow Now they received young females people from all social classes etc Collection went to the Smithsonian Institute Consolidation Period 19391971 gt Wilton Marion Krogman from the University of Pennsylvania 0 He consolidated works to what is known as THE FIRST MAJOR FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY PUBLICATION while working alongside the FBI 0 Later on he went on and published his works as The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine World War II 1940 s1951 Central Identi cation Laboratory Hawaii gt Slow recovery leads to decomposition of the body gt Trained Anthropologists only were able to work with this gt Mildred Trotter again O Became the director in 1948 0 Large known population stature height research in the 1950s gt T Dole Stewart 19011997 0 Worked at the Smithsonian I Helped Hrdlicka with FBI cases I Became a curator in 1942 I Became a director in 1962 I Helped the FBI with 167 cases I Helped IDing the victims from the Korean War I Wrote a book Essentials of Forensic Anthropology 0 Stewart had a medical degree 0 Used Physical Anthropology gt J Lawrence Angel 0 He was an Anatomist from the Jefferson Medical College 0 O 0 Also an FBI consultant for over 600 cases He was part of an excavation in Greece I Worked with ancient people I To work with ancient people you have to understand their behavior and activity as to not confuse a ritual for forensic evidence I Knew a lot of the Paleopathologies Created and started a Forensic Training Program in 1970 O The reason he started this course was to train and guide people in the ways of forensic anthropology This course was only a few weeks long gt American Board of Forensic Anthropology ABFA 1 Promote the study development of standards and advance forensics as a SCIENCE P93 Promote the professionalism and ethics while in court Work on getting Forensic Anthropology board certified Promote the field with government and agencies 5 Have directory of active diplomats gt SWGANTH Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology O O O O 0 FBI and Department of Defense central ID lab Has international Anthropologists The SWGANTH post the best practices and methods that can be used Have Standards and Quantifications Again promotes Forensic Anthropology as a science and not an art Chapter 155 Expert Testimony gt Outcomes of judicial events drive research 0 An example is in the case of the Frye test in 1923 I Frye vs US I The rule of acceptance of technology by scientific community was needed I Knowledge beyond jury I In this case the detector was a brand new invention that had not been used or tested before I It needed to convince the general community that it worked gt Federal Rules of Evidence 1975 O Gatekeeper rule I Does the expert testimony aid the jury 0 Is the science admissible accepted 0 IS there a general science community acceptance I Asking that it is not an obscure idea that the vast majority doesn t know about 0 What s the experience of the expert I Does the expert use methods correctly gt From the Daubert case in 1993 the Daubert Guidelines were created 1 Anything proven was tested using the scientific method hypothesis test results etc 2 All the work was peer reviewed 3 Known error rates 4 Standards of technique 0 Know how everything was measured exactly For example if you measured a femur make sure that it is know whether you counted the head of the femur or just the shaft etc 0 Have detailed notes explaining everything 5 Widespread acceptance The Forensic Anthropologist gt This person helps and aids with 0 Location and recovery of remains O Medicolegal significance and PMI 0 Create a profileosteobiography osteo bones Biographylife story I Narrow profile to find on missing persons I Point out trauma patterns 0 Assist with positive identification I Usually using odontology teeth 0 Expert testimony in court
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