Week 2 Notes : BSC 121-102
Week 2 Notes : BSC 121-102 Bsc121
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Daniels on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bsc121 at Marshall University taught by Dr. Axel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
880 121102 Week 2 Notes Dr Anne Axel 83194 831 Reproductive Success is Key 0 Those who have the best traits gain access to mates Their offspring resemble the stronger organisms thus giving them a higher probability of surviving in the wild Must make it to puberty and must maintain health Most organisms internal functions consist of EAT SURVIVE REPRODUCE until we get to humans Humans are more complex Only heritable traits are subject to selection Certain traits are favorable in some environments but selection on that trait can vary F ness This term fitness is different than the fitness we are used to When we say fitness we are referring to an organism39s output or in other words how many offspring they ve produced 0 An organism has fitness based upon how many offspring they left behind before they died 0 Ex A highly financially stable woman with various resources that has no kids has less fitness than a homeless meth head woman with 3 kids Over the weekend we were supposed to have read an article about 2 types of fishTomcod and The Killifish that survive in water polluted with PCB Dr Axel wanted us to think about why the fish survived and to find the misleading language about the peppered moth population 0 The fish survive due to a mutation Tomcod Has mutant form of AHR transcribing factor is shorter and doesn t bind easily to PCB Killifish 2 variations of proteins are resistant to PCBs Great illustration on slides MU Online 0 The misleading language about the peppered moths is specifically the word evolved The peppered moths never evolved black wings The black winged moths were preexisting The peppered moths died off because they became easier for predators to find on all the polluted trees covered in black soot from the industrial revolution This was natural selection NOT evolution 0 Individuals don39t evolve Only populations can evolve PB 92 Convergent Organisms look a lot alike and have the same function but are not related Divergent Manufactured from 19291979 not manufactured anymore PCB pollution occurred due to leaks spills illegal dumping and waste burning Doesnt break down easily Travels far Found all over the world Can accumulate in leaves taken up from small organisms to fish and spreads known to cause cancer and other illnesses because they bind to proteins AHR in our body and then binds to our DNA Controls which genes are turned on and off and we can39t tell which genes are being manipulated There is no treatment Antibiotic Resistance Genetic mutation is what causes drug antibiotic resistance Antibiotics are used on meat to prevent diseases which means that the antibiotic resistant bacteria that come from the animals are being consumed by humans Fun Fact Bacteria outnumber your own cells 101 Antibiotic Resistance cont Best way to avoid consuming antibiotic resistant bacteria is to fully cook meat and to not cut vegetables and other foods on a counter that wasn39t cleaned after cutting meat Always wrap packaged meat in plastic bags while shopping to eliminate seeping juices on other groceries Antibiotics are also not always necessary so another way to prevent antibiotic resistant bacteria is to avoid taking antibiotics unless absolutely necessary We are attempting to prepare for a time when we can no longer use antibiotics because of an overabundance of antibiotic bacteria Convergent vs Divergent Evolution Organisms that are related but long periods of time pass and the functions of the organism changes The 3 Domains of Life Bacteria Archaeal and Eukaryota 1 Bacteria Cvtobacteria o Bacteria are PROKARYOTES 0 DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus 0 Single celled 0 Single stranded DNA 0 Locomotion via the Flagellum o Majority have a cell wall 0 Consume nutrients in environment grow and then through binary fission split into two 0 Bacteria are important for life on Earth o Live in all environments 0 Help decompose organic material carbon recycling 0 Fix gaseous nitrogen for plants nitrogen recycling cterial Pasmid o Loops of DNA found in some bacteria 0 Contains special genes that are not related to basic life functions antibiotic resistance Horizontal Gene Trmfer vs Vertical Gene Transfer Horizontal Transfer of genes from one organism to another not traditional Vertical Transfer of genes from parent to offspring through sexual or asexual reproduction Symbiosis Symbiotic relationships involve two different species that live together where at least one organism benefits Many Bacteria form symbiotic relationships Bacteria helps us stay healthy keeps environmental insults out digests our food good stomach e coli and makes vitamins 94 M RSA Drug resistant bacteria that causes skin infection Carried in nostrils Common in athletes spread through gym equipment Easy to pass onto someone else Type of staph infection Endospores Bacteria that have gone dormant and have really thick walls Can comes to life and reproduce Ex Anthrax and Botulism Anthrax o If you inhale it or eat it it is lethal Botulism 0 Found in food that not heated enough to destroy endospores o Leads to muscularrespiratory paralysis Archaea Extremonhiles Extremophiles Love extreme environments unique membranes are resistant to extreme conditions Hyperthermophiles love heat Halophiles salt loving Ph extremes High pressure There are other kinds of extremophiles in the world Not very many people study them Not much is known about them Nonparasitic can39t hurt you Found everywhere in our environment Living fossils Microbes 0 Not just bacteria 0 Belong to 1 of4 major groups bacteria viruses fungi and protozoa 0 Can be a prokaryote or a eukaryote Protists Important to food chain if we lose them we lose certain foods in the food chain that we eat Teach us about how more complex organisms come to be Were first Eukaryotes Microscopic lnhabit most environments Some are responsible for toxic blooms in rivers and oceans Some are pathogens malaria Some are photosynthetic Algae for example 40 primary production on Earth Many ways to categorize protists Plantlike Funguslike Animallike Fungi digest like we do don39t photosynthesise but absorb nutrients Plankton are protists that swim or float mm Attached to rocks in streams Mucilage Macroalgae Ex Kelp Doesn39t go deep because it needs the sunlight Giardia Really hard to filter and get rid of Excavata Protists Euglenoids Move really fast and have eyespots Green Algae Similar to plants Algal blooms develop because of an overabundance of a food source Ex Sydney the pollution emitted nitrogen into the water and the algae fed on the nitrogen Red Algae Seaweed Nonmotile doesn39t move
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