Sept 2-7 Biology 151
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by njaume on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 151 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Marc Wolman, Donna Fernandez, David Abbott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 362 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Lecture 2 Sept 4 Outline The molecules of life Elements Bonds Strong Weak Properties of water Macromolecules Assemblydisassemny Major Types Chemistry of living systems Chapters 25 Life originated and evolved in aqueous water based environments this is why theres so much emphasis in space reports about quothunting for 9Viden09 0f the existence of waterquot The compounds that are used to build structures in living systems are carbon based Organic compounds Atomic Level Elements Which elements are most abundant in living matter Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen These make up 96 mass of living organismsquotquot Phosphorous Sulfur CHOPNS acronyms Chemical bonds interactions between atoms Covalent bond strongest 2 atoms share electrons If the electrons are shared equally 9X CH4 nonpolar If the electrons are shared unequally EX 420 Polar the electrons spend more time with the Oxygen atom so the Oxygen takes on a partial negative charge Therefore the Hydrogens would take on a partial positive charge The oxygen atom is called electronegative Ionic Bonds Electrons are no longer shared the are transferred from a less electronegative atom to a more electronegative atom Ex NaCl the electron moves from the Sodium to the Chloride so the Na is positive and the Cl is negative These are permanent charges sometimes called quotchargecharge interactionsquot Weak Class of bonds Hydrogen bond Van der Waals interactions Water Water molecules are able to interact with up to 4 other water molecules when in the liquid state Straight lines are covalent bonds and dashes are hydrogen bonds 20 Hbonds to equal the same as 1 covalent bond Bacterial DNA 25 X10quot6 H bonds about equal to gt 100000 Covalent bonds Prooerties of water COheSion tendency of H20 molecules to stick together High specific heat takes a great deal of heat to change the temperature of 1g of H20 by 1 degree C Less dense as a solid than a liquid quotice floatsquot bc the crystal lattice is less dense then the motion of liquid Very good solvent anything with charges or partial charges can interact with is going to dissolve into water Hydrophilic39 quotwaterloving ionic polar Tend to be things that have lots of eectronegative atoms in the structure eX lots of Oxygens OH or Nitrogens NH2 VS Hydrophobic quotwater hatingquot nonpolar compounds eX CH Van der Waals interactions become important when molecules come close together very important for hydrophobic interactions and is sometimes called quothydrophobic interactionsquot Macro bio Molecules Combinations of small oroanic molecules are assembled via Condensation dehydration loss of water reactions 39Sugar391 sugar2 gt Sugar1 sugar2 H20 end up breaking H off one sugar and OH off another sugar to make water and put the sugars together Sugar123 is a polymer poly means many Sugar X is called a subunit a monomer or a residue mono means one Disassembly of polymers is via hydrolysis watersplitting reactions SUgar1 sugar2 sugar3 gt sugar1 sugar2 sugar3 H20 SUgar1 sugar2 sugar3 H20 gt sugar1sugar2 sugar3 water molecule is used up to release sugar 3 from the polymer 4 classes of Macromolecules Carbohydrates Subunit sugars Lipids Subunit fatty acids other molecules Proteins Subunit Amino Acids Nucleic acids Subunit nucleotides