Module 10 Notes
Module 10 Notes Geoscience 115
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah James on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geoscience 115 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Philip Brown in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Science Behind the News- The World Around Us in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Geoscience Module 10 Nor any drop to drink Groundwater is the underground water that fully saturates pores or cracks in soils or rocks 0 Groundwater is replenished by precipitation 0 Between the surface and the aquifer zone is the unsaturated zone where water first goes after precipitating It usually contains some water can be fully saturated right after rain or dry during a drought After water requirements for plants are satisfied the rest of the precipitation ows into the water table the top of zone below which the openings in rocks are saturated 0 Below the water table all the openings in rocks are full of water that moves through aquifers to streams wells or wherever the water is being withdrawn 0 Refilling of aquifers is slow because water ows slowly through unsaturated zone and aquifer Aquifers can be replenished artificially through two ways 0 I spread water over the land in pits and ditches that allow the water to infiltrate the water 0 2 construct recharge wells and inject water directly into an aquifer I More expensive but reasonable when the spreading method isn t possible 0 The type of rock surrounding an aquifer determines whether or not it is a good supply of water ex clay has few cracks for water to travel through but limestone has many so limestone makes a better aquifer that replenishes more quickly Aquifers vary in depth range and supply 0 The quantity of water a given type of rock will hold depends on its porosity a measure of pore space between the grains of rock or of cracks I If the grains are all about the same size or wellsorted the waterfilled spaces between the grains account for a large portion of the volume of the aquifer 0 Sand and gravel aquifers have well sorted grains so they hold and transmit larger quantities of water 0 If water is to move through a rock the pores must be connected I If the pores are connected and are large enough the rock is permeable I A rock without many pore space ex granite can only be permeable if it contains enough sizeable cracks or fractures 0 Nearly all rock formations are broken by parallel systems of cracks called joints caused by stresses in the Earth s crust 0 Natural processes ice freezing weathering heatingcooling causing expansion etc widen these cracks There is no relationship between the depth on an aquifer and it s water yield 0 After entering an aquifer water moves to lower lying places and is discharged into springs streams etc 0 Ground water in aquifers between layers of poorly permeable rock may be confined under pressure I If this water is tapped by a well the water will rise above the aquifer and ow out 0 These waters are under artesian pressure and are called artesian aquifers 0 The water level to which they rise in these wells is called the Dotentiometric surface A spring is occurs when an aquifer is filled to the point where it over ows onto the surface thermal springs occur where the water is hot often in areas of recent volcanic activity geysers are thermal springs that erupt Water shortage is greatest in equatorial countries often where population is rising 0 Countries with big issues I China increasing population contaminated water sources and over pumping farmers are going out of business without water and the country will have to import more food I India over pumping salination of water I Israel over pumping causing seafood to contaminate drinking water The Nile is a source of water for over ten countries including Egypt and it is likely that a water war could erupt soon 0 Ethiopia tried to build a dam in the Nile and Egypt strongly opposed it The Tigris and Euphrates rivers also supply many countries owing from Turkey to Syria and Iraq 0 Turkey has built dams to control the river limiting the irrigation of the other two Some countries Jordan and Israel have been cooperating over the water shortage to try and preserve their resources Charging for water would reduce consumption greatly as it has for farmers in some areas of America 0 But if farmers go out of business or grow more profitable crops it could lead to food shortages In areas without water water vendors can charge ridiculous prices costing people almost all of their income Privatization of water seems like it would make water more available but it has failed before ex Cochabamba Conservation is the last oasis and can greatly reduce water consumption 0 Drip irrigation and low ow toilets both greatly conserve water 0 Reuse of wastewater is often employed in arid lands 0 Desalination of water would be the ultimate solution if it can be done economically 0 Global warming would cause sea levels to rise with more evaporation and precipitation but would overall change the hydrology of every river basin in the world 0 More snow melting will worsen the water shortages in many places especially Asia
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