Art History 6C Modern - Contemporary
Art History 6C Modern - Contemporary
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Date Created: 05/16/14
Art History 6C May 15 2014 Lecture 13 Duchamp Dada and Surrealism 0 Duchamp was interested in machines and how they have a sexual meaning to them 0 He investigates the whole notion of making art itself and wanted to answer questions like 1 Are artists like manufacturers Do they have something special What does culture do How does value get assessed in a work of art Does the artist have the final say What is the distinction between art and commercial products 7 What are the criteria and who determines it U P 0 Duchamp took the term Readymade to apply it to his readymade art pieces it usually is an item that is aesthetically provocative 0 In Advance of the Broken Arm 1964 and Fountain 1917 1 Both were highly controversial when they were given for display at showcases 2 People thought that this was not art because they were everyday objects which Duchamp simply wrote something on and was calling art 3 The Fountain was centered at the Society of Independent Artists but was not accepted and was thrown out because things that were not made by an artist did not classify as art 4 Duchamp wanted to emphasize this point and change the convention of what was considered art 5 He claimed that because he changed the item by signing writing or ipping it it was art even though it was a manufactured item 0 Duchamp s Rrose Selavey 1921 1 Rrose Selavey was Duchamp s alter ego and whose name was a play on the French Eros C est la vie or physical love is life 0 His Wanted 2000 Reward 1923 was raising the questions of who is an artist and where are they He also wanted to point out how artists are always sought after and put pressure on who is an artist and what the artist does an artist can be anyone and is anyone 0 Picabia Francis Amorous Parade 1917 was also interested in machinery his Portrait of a young American Girl in a state of Nudity 1915 plays on the similarities of sparks to start a machine and what a woman needs to get sparked in order for her machinery to also work Futurism was about speed the modem experience machines youth and war wanted to promote industrialization and Modernity It stared in Italy and was during the beginning of the 20th century Umberto Boccioni s Futurist Evening 1911 was a representation of what the Futurists believed in FT Marinetti wrote the Futurist Manifesto which was published in an Italian newspaper and rejected the past and celebrated speed violence youth industry and machines he promoted the enlistment of youths to the war Dada Movement began in Zurich Switzerland as a result of WWI and the disgust that these artists felt toward all the senseless deaths that these countries were allowing They wanted to become something separate from the traditions of society who was allowing war they wanted to be different and they stood against nationalism rationalism and materialism because they felt this contributed to senseless war The Cabaret Voltaire was held in Zurich and were performances that were nonsensical and were put together by Dada artists and initiated by Hugo Ball who lost his friend to the war and had a deep feeling against war Ball would wear cardboard pants a paper hat and crab like hands and would read poetry that did not make sense to the audience but that was the point There was Dada art that political and some that was not but in Zurich they wanted to combat enlistment Hans Arp Collage arranged according to the Laws of Chance 191617 2 Claimed that the pieces of paper landed randomly in that pattem They believed that human art technology can t stop war it is all worthless Post WWI Germany and the Weimer Republic there was in ation and the Treaty of Versailles caused reparation payments to pull Germany father into an economic depression Dada in Berlin There was disillusionment Hanah Hoch 191920 Cut with a Kitchen Knife 3 Was a collage nothing was painted she made a division within her collage of dadas and anti dadas like the Kaiser 4 Uses figures to make up faces and other representations 5 She also uses works and pictures of people 6 She drew from mass culture and did not modify anything The 1 International Dada Fair was in Berlin in 1920 and it put on several shows it criticized culture and went against it things against not only after the war but also before it John Heartfield made collages and photomontages and was disgusted with German government he was a pioneer in the use of art as a political weapon and many of them were anti Nazi and anti Facist Dada movement sort of just ended itself as society began to take more interest in it and for them that was not acceptable because it would tum traditional and they Were against that Surrealism outgrowth of Dada Id instinctive physical desire Ego manages the id mediates between obligation of social life and personal desire tries to satisfy the id in socially acceptable Ways Superego conscience usually imposed by criticism or disapproval family culture extemal pressures Sublimation redirection of id s primal impulses into constructive behavior