Chapter 1 PSYC 1001 - General Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Notetaker on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at George Washington University taught by Fettig in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
9315 PSYCH Chapter 1 Psychology the scienti c study of behavior amp mental processes Psychology Four Goals 0 Description Explanation Prediction Control What s happening why will it happen again how can it be changed Wilhelm Wundt39s o lntrospectionthe process of objectively examining amp measuring one s thoughts amp mental activities 0 Structuralism 0 Focused on basic elements of the mind and mental processes Edward Tichener Wundt s student Margaret Washburn The Animal Mind William James 0 Functionalismhow the mind allows people to adapt live work amp play 0 In uenced educational evolutionary amp organizational psychology Three In uential Approaches 0 Gestalt 0 An quotOrganized Wholequot psychology 0 Study patterns of behavior as opposed to studying small pieces of them 0 Started with Wertheimer who studied sensation amp perception 0 Psychoanalysis o Freud s patients suffered from nervous disorders wt no apparent physical cause 0 Behaviorism o Focuses on observable behavior 0 Directly seenmeasured 0 John B Watson Re exes could be conditioned learned Phobias are learned quotLittle Albertquot 0 Psychodynamic Perspective 0 Focused on the development of a sense of self amp discovery of motivations behind a behavior other than sexual motivations Behavioral Perspective 0 BF Skinner 9315 PSYCH Chapter 1 Operant Conditioning of voluntary behaviorReinforcement 0 Humanistic Perspective 0 Roots of Psychology in eld of Philosophy 0 Ability to quotthink one self wellquot 0 Actualization o Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs 0 Psychological Safety LoveBelonging Esteem Self Actualization 0 Cognitive Perspective 0 Focuses on memory intelligence perception problem solving amp learning 0 Neuroscience Sociocultural Perspective 0 Relationship between behavior amp culture 0 Bio psychological Perspective 0 Attributes Human amp animal behavior 0 Focuses on what you can observe Evolutionary Perspective 0 Behaviors explained for survival purposes 0 How the mind works amp why it does Types of Psychological Profession Psychiatrist Psychiatrist Social Worker Psychologist Basic Research 0 Research for sake of gathering scienti c knowledge 0 How many things a person can hold in their memory at a given time Applied Research 0 Aimed at realword practical problems 0 Individuals 39chunk information in order to memorize it The Scienti c MethodSystem of gathering data to reduce bias amp error in measurement 1Percieve the question 2 Form Hypothesis 3 Test Hypothesis 4 Draw Conclusions 5 Report Results Descriptive Methods 9315 PSYCH Chapter 1 Naturalistic Observation 0 WatchRecord Human or animal in their environment 0 Advantage Realistic picture of behavior 0 Disadvantage Observer Effect tendency of peopleanimals to behave differently when they know they are being observed Laboratory Observation 0 Watching animalshumans in laboratory setting 0 Advantagescontrolled environment specialized equipment 0 Disadvantagearti cial behavior Case Study 0 Study of one individual in great deta o AdvantageA LOT of detail 0 DisadvantageCannot apply to others 0 Phineas Gage Surveys 0 Representative Sample randomly selected sample of subjects from large population 0 Populationthe entire group of peopleanimals in interest 0 Advantageslarge amounts of date 0 Disadvantagescourtesy bias researchers must ensure results are meaningful Correlation 0 Measure two variables using a mathematical formula to produce a correlation coefficient 0 Range 100 100 0 Closer to 100 or 100 the stronger the relationship between the two variables 0 Positive Correlation One increases other increase one decreases other decreases 0 Negative Correlation One increases other decreases o Scatterplots Experiment Deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result allowing the determination of cause amp effect relationships Operational De nitionDe nition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured aggressive play Independent Variable Dependent Variable Experimental Groupsubjected to independent variable 9315 PSYCH Chapter 1 Control Groupnot subjected to the independent variable amp who may receive a placebo treatment Random Assignment The process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly so each subject has equal chance of being in either group Controls for confounding variables Assigned to experimental or control group Subjected to one or more condition Tested for differences