EEMB 50 Non Infectious Diseases
EEMB 50 Non Infectious Diseases
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Date Created: 05/16/14
EEMB 50 May 14 2014 Lecture 19 Lung Disease Thin film of water surrounds Alveoli and they are very moist Surfactant is needed in the alveoli in order for the surface tension between the alveoli to allow them to move and allow gas exchange if this did not happen you would not be able to breathe because your lungs cannot absorb the Oxygen A few weeks before babies are born they begin to produce surfactants but some premature babies do not have them and that is why they have difficulty breathing and are placed in incubators or are given surfactants Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD a progressive disease that affects the lungs restricting airways and making it difficult to breathe Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis are both diseases of causes that are very similar and are considered COPDs With Emphysema alveoli are selfdestructing possibly by the immune system 1 There is decreased area for gas exchange as membranes break down and there is a loss of elasticity because there are small ruptures begin to make larger ruptures 2 Patients with emphysema are usually referred to as pink puffer and are usually barrel chested are short of breath and get a pink ush 3 They get this appearance because they are working quite hard trying to breath Treatment 1 It is irreversible 2 Slow progression by removing irritants like smoke 3 Supplemental Oxygen 4 Lung transplant but few patients were enough to survive surgery and advancements in stem cell treatments can better give more people to have lung transplants Bronchitis develops in the Bronchioles and there are two forms acute and chronic 1 Bronchitis is an in ammation of the bronchial tubes which carry air to and from the lungs People with Bronchitis often cough up thickened mucus 2 Acute Bronchitis is very common because it usually develops from a cold pathogens or other respiratory infections It can last a few weeks and then the in ammation will leave Chronic Bronchitis is more serious and results from smoking It lasts forever and there is permanent damage to the bronchioles after exposure to the smoking lung irritants There is a constant irritation or in ammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes and there is hyperplasia of mucus producing cells so there is lots of mucus now 3 This causes the cough and there is poor gas exchange low Oxygen levels in the blood and high Carbon Dioxide 4 People with Bronchitis can t respond by breathing more rapidly because bronchioles are narrow and it would only tire you out 5 Patients with Chronic Bronchitis are known as blue bloaters because there as the lungs fail to provide blood with Oxygen to organs and tissues like the heart they become stressed 6 There is wheezing coughing of mucus and septum production Treatments for Chronic Bronchitis include 1 Bronchodilators which relax muscles around the airways 2 Steroids to reduce in ammation Oxygen therapy to help with shortness of breath Because of the uid accumulation in the lings they are very susceptible to infections Asthma is also a chronic long term lung disease that in ames and also narrows the airways making it very difficult to breathe It is caused by genetics environmental triggers and leads to muscular constriction of the airways and the cells in the airways may also produce more mucus than usual There is medication that causes smooth muscle relaxation All these diseases could be solved from having a lung transplant however there is donor shortage the transportation of organs without damage lung rejection patients may be too weak to survive the surgery