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Week 1 and 2 notes

by: Mary Sullivan

Week 1 and 2 notes CSD 4020

Mary Sullivan
Language Disorders in Children
Stacy Wagovich

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If picking up from where week 1 notes left off, begin at 8/31 section. These notes begin to describe the different models for language disorders. Also, the differences between language differences ...
Language Disorders in Children
Stacy Wagovich
Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Sullivan on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 4020 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Stacy Wagovich in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.

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Date Created: 09/06/15
Language Disorders in Children CSD 4020 08242015 Distinguish between speech and language 0 Speech l refers to articulation uency voice rate of production coarticulation etc Not the ideas but the way they are produced 0 Language use of conventional symbols words to express thoughts The actual coding of ideas 0 When you collect a quotspeech samplequot what will you be looking for in the child s sample 0 How is that different from a lang sample Expressive vs Receptive Language Receptive language Our understanding of language 0 How could we measure what a child understands about lang Expressive Language Our production of ideas coded into lang o How could this be measured 0 In our clinical work this is the most basic way we can think about a child s language The Speech Chain Model 1 Acoustic level 2 Internal physicalmotor system 3 Linguistic processing Language output Bloom amp Lahey s Model 0 Form grammar syntax morphology phonology structure of Iang Content Vocab semantics meaning of Iang Use pragmatics social communication how Iang is used within social contexts Internal evidence provided by an individual client s perspective and beliefs and an SLP s clinical expertise External evidence consists of welldesigned and controlled experimental studies that result in experimental data by analyzing study results a practitioner can determine whether a particular clinical practice is effective Theories of language deve0pment 826 Why should SLPs care about theory 0 To differentiate from what s normal to abnormal o Theories ultimately have clinical implications 0 Some important practical considerations 0 Differentiating disordered from typical development 0 Theory as to causes will inform treatment decisions 0 Most intervention approaches are based on theory 0 Remember no single theory explains everything Nature vs nurture 0 Two extreme positions 0 Universal grammar Chomsky O Radical behaviorism Skinner The middle ground 0 Most modern theories include a role for both nature and nurture What does behavioral genetics tell us 0 00000 Young children twin studies show estimated heritability of about 24 for language skill Middle childhood heritability rises to 57 Heritability may be lower in extreme environments Heritability may be higher for lang disorders What accounts for the rest Shared and unique environment Gene environment correlation When we choose environments based on our individuality Behaviorism key terms Reinforcement consequences that lead to increase in a behavior 0 0 Positive R providing a reward Negative R taking away something undesirable Can be social material activityrelated o Shaping closing in on a target behavior 0 Learner must become increasingly accurate in order to earn a reward Punishment consequences that lead to decreases in a behavior Antecedent the stimulus that precedes a behavior 0 Language antecedents Extinction behaviors that are not reinforced will gradually disappear o Fixed and variable schedules Chaining teaching a complex behavior by breaking it down into separate steps 0 Each step in the sequence is reinforced until it becomes novel DrillandPractice o Antecedents are provided and desirable responses are reinforced o Shaping and chaining Focus on observable measurable behaviors 0 Aids in clear documentation and progress monitoring Simple to understand and apply 0 Does not require sophisticated grasp of hypothetical constructs o Requires consistency Limitations Constructivism summary Based on writings of Piaget Cognitive development proceeds in a series of stages Both nature and nurture o Inborn mental processes support Iang development 0 Lang itself is not innate Children actively construct their knowledge of the world 0 Natural curiosity and exploration drive to understand 0 Links between motor ability play and language Constructivism key terms 0 Schema 0 Concept or mental category formed as child interacts w the world Assimilation 0 New info is added to an existing schema errors can occur 0 Accommodation 0 Schema is adjusted to account for new info 0 Equilibrium 0 Child seeks balance between assimilation and accommodation Symbolic play 0 Child uses an object to stand for something else 0 Object permanence o Objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen 0 Object constancy 0 An object remains the same regardless of conditions seeing something fro different directions light vs dark out Meansend 0 Beginning of intent planning problem solving Piaget s cognitive stages Sensorimotor 0 Birth 2 years 0 Child experiences world through the senses Preoperational o 27 years 0 magical thinking rapid ang development concrete operations 0 711 years 0 ogica reasoning in the hereandnow formal operations 0 12 years adult 0 beginning of abstract thinking Clinical Applications 0 Understanding the cognitive basis of ang development o Is the child ready Qualitative change over time 0 Understanding the role of active exploration 0 Child as active agent in constructing knowledge Observational play 0 Does the child exhibit representational thought 0 Limitation development not usually so linear 0 Child may be in several stages at once Social lnteractionist theory summary 0 Based originally on work of Vygotsky Social interaction through lang supports cog Development Lang development does not occur in a vacuum 0 Adultchild interaction is key to early lang development SIT terms 0 Zone of proximal development 0 What the learner can accomplish with adult support 0 Maximizes learning Infantdirected talk 0 Thought to help infants make connections Coordinating attention 0 Caregivers follow child s attention focus 0 Adults direct child s attention Scaffolding 0 Adult support for learning a challenging task gradually faded Mediation 0 Teaching quothot to learnquot learner accepts responsibility Parentchild routines o Structured predictable communication child takes active role SIT clinical implications 0 Large impact on educational theory and practice 0 Both regular and special education SLP Parents an integral part or treatment 0 Emphasis on communication across many settings 0 Limitation does not fully explain lang development 0 Based heavily on Western middleclass childrearing practices Emergentist theory summary 0 Relatively new theory 0 Views naturenurture debate as irrelevant 0 Biology interacts w environment to produce learning 0 Data driven approach 0 Learning principles emerge from child s own experience w lang 0 Developmental sequence 0 The whole is greater than the sum of it s parts Assumptions of emergentist coalition model 0 Children choose from multiple cues that are available 0 Importance of given type of cue will change w development 0 Through experience children construct principles of word learning Cues children use 0 quotDumb attention mechanismsquot 0 perceptual salience association frequency Constraintsprinciples 0 Mutual exclusivity whole object taxonomic assumption Socialpragmatic cues 0 Eye gaze pointing child seeks out speaker s intent Linguistic cues o Syntax prosody o Emergentist theory clinical implications 0 Focus on inconsistencies Target emerging features Narrow target leads to broad changes Intervention approaches 0 Lang recasting o Focused stimulation 831 Cognitive Bases of Language Thought in uences language egocentric speech Piaget Egocentric speech 0 Produced in the presence of others quotcommunal monologuequot 0 Not directed toward others or understood by others 0 After age 3 use of egocentric speech decreases Theory of mind and language 0 ToM understanding that others have mental states thoughts feelings etc that may differ from one s own 0 Develops gradually beginning in 1st year of life Lessdeveloped theory of mind can limit lang development 0 Autism an extreme example Lang also promotes theory of mind understanding 0 How often child hears talk about mental states 0 Conclusion lang and ToM develop in tandem o Mutually reinforcing Languagein uencesthoughtinnerspeech Vygotsky again 0 Like piaget notices decrease in egocentric speech ages 37 0 Why According to Vygotsky bc egocentric speech becomes internalized as quotinner speechquot 0 Different functions of overt and inner speech 0 When talking to others thoughts turn into words 0 When talking to oneself words turn into thoughts 0 Inner speech and cognitive performance 0 quotPrivate speechquot semiaudible inner speech 0 children who engage in more private speech show 0 greater cognitive exibility 0 better complex planning ability articulatory suppression impairs performance on cognitive tasks 0 by preventing private or inner speech 0 Greater vocab is associated with better performance on cognitive tasks 0 Direction of effect Bilingualism and executive functioning 0 Executive function EF higherorder cognitive skills 0 Working memory inhibitory control mental set shifting o Bilingual children and adults often have superior EF skills 0 Daily experience with inhibiting one language in favor of the other 0 Frequent shifting between languages 0 EF skills also support L2 learning 0 Firstlanguage learning too 0 Bottom line 0 More evidence that language and cognitive skills are mutually supportive Cognitive processes and language 0 Attention o Orienting focusing on topic sustained keep focusing on topic selective screening out outside stimulus Speed of processing 0 Speech is an extremely speedy input 0 Phonological working memory 0 Key de cit in Speechlanguage impairment SLI phonological loop info is being stored while processed Serial order memory 0 May be as important as capacity Not just found in language Ex how many items someone can name back in order 0 Dual tasking divided attention 0 An idea of resource sharing Multitasking being able to complete two things at once Background knowledge 0 New concepts and vocab quothook ontoquot prior knowledge Integration of newlylearned words 0 Semantic priming of novel but related words Learning words from stories in uence of SES 0 For stories relying heavily on background knowledge children of lowSES families were at a disadvantage o For stories with completely novel background details lowand middleSES children performed more similarly Metacognition quotThinking about thinkingquot preparation planning to learn 0 setting clear and realistic goals choosing and using learning strategies monitoring 0 ongoing are strategies working Orchestrating strategies 0 Selecting strategies that work well together Evaluating 0 Were all of the steps effective For these stages kids would have to be in the formal operations stage of cognition around age 12 A higherorder factor quotCorrelation does not imply causationquot cognition and language may both be in uenced by a more general ability aka quotgquot o quotgquot is associated with both verbal and nonverbal ability evidence verbal and nonverbal cognition tend to be related within individuals 0 grow more highly correlated with development 0 twin studies show large genetic overlap o SLI and Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD exceptions o Maturation affects both language and nonverbal cognition Models of Language Disorders 1 Categorical model 0 Based on medical model Classi es lang disorders on basis of syndrome ex SLI Down s HI Assumptions Potential problems 0 This model is based on labels It shows these labels will highlight potential problems kids with speci c label disorders have But these can oversimplify disorders 2 Speci c Disabilities model 0 Based on the idea that the language disorder is caused by a separate area of weakness Remediation should be based on helping strengthen that other area By strengthening the other area language dif culties will improve 0 Ex fast forward focusing on speech rather than language to improve an issue in language 0 Potential problems 0 Initial weakness is not being addressed 3 Systems model 0 The language disorder exists within the context of the interaction between the person and hisher environment 0 Ex brother and sister are always there to help when child is quotmessing upquot Siblings won t always be there 0 The context in which we use and learn language is important 4 DescriptiveDevelopmental model 0 States describing the individual s strengths and weaknesses is essential States that our knowledge or normal language development is the best source for guiding language treatment 0 Earlier developing skills should be targeted before later developing skills Emphasizing the child s actual language behavior Describing the language behavior leads very naturally into goal writing later 0 There are some disorders that do not follow speci c developmental steps This would not be the model for them Distinguishing Language Differences from Disorders Terminology Ethnic droup a group of individuals who share a common language heritage religion or geographynationality Not race 0 1 in 5 ethnic groups in America EuroAmerican AfricanAmerican LatinoAmerican AsianAmerican NativeAmerican Cultural Sensitivity a basic respect for other ethnic groups Believe all cultures are equal Acculturation 0 Integration a family want to maintain their own culture while adopting EuropeanAmerican EA culture 0 Assimilation A family want to adopt the EA and let go of their own culture 0 Separation want to maintain own culture and does not want to adopt the EA culture 0 Marginalization not able to maintain own culture or adopt EA culture 0 Heritage consistencv the degree to which a person s lifestyle matches a persons culture 0 Doing this might lead to snap judgments o lndividualist vs Collectivist culture 0 CC other children grandparents etc may help out more with child s care 0 Timeliness o Personal way of dealing Language Assessment of Children of Different Dialect Groups Dialects are not just accents Two speakers of different dialects typically can understand each other whereas two speakers of different language cannot 0 Critical issue Language assessments must measure language abilities regardless of a person s dialect 0 Assessment must be nonbiased Steps in a Nonbiased Assessment 0 Identify the dialect Determine look up the characteristics of the dialect 0 Ask whether the tests that you re using have norms for that dialect group 0 When possible best not to abandon normreference testing altogether o Administer normreference testing if possible Administer more descriptive measures 0 Descriptive Measures of Language 0 Language sample 0 Dynamic Assessment testteachretest 0 Why is DA so helpful Observational procedures 0 Assessment of Children who are Bilingual or monolingual speakers of other languages 0 If child s dominant language is not English and we do not speak the dominant language there are two options 0 Refer to an SLP who can administer a language assessment in the child s dominant language 0 Hire a trained interpreter to conduct the assessment Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 0 Use of Interpreters Should not be family members Have some training in speech amp language development and in working with children and families Familiar with language and development of that language Cultural informant Structure of Assessment Determine dominant language May choose standardized measures DELV but do so with caution eliminate potentially biased items and do not use norms Dynamic assessment Language probes individualized to child Observation of child with peers who speak hisher dominant language Parentfamily interview 0 Interpreting Results Interpretations are descriptive usually without test scored Common to see some language delay in bilingual children


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