Class 11 and 12 Notes Russ 280
Class 11 and 12 Notes Russ 280 Russ 280
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Lacman on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Russ 280 Class 11 Pushkin Again! Born 1799 into old noble family, could trace ancestry back 600 years Mother- granddaughter of an Abyssinian prince who was a favorite of Peter the Great (south African heritage) At age 12 he began schooling at the new academy that Tsar Alexander I had set up: the Tsarskoe Tselo Lyceum There met good friends, established connections with great literary figures of his age – they would form the new school of Romanticism in Russia Rebel, Exile, Husband Upon graduation friendly with liberal aristocrats who want changes in the way Russia’s tsars rule Becomes known as a political hothead: exiled to the southern reaches of the empire (contemporary Moldova) Thus misses Decembrist Rebellion of 1825: many of his friends exiled to Siberia or killed 1826 petitions the czar to be permitted back to the capital Nicholas agrees but says he will be the new censor for Pushkin’s work 1831 marries Natalya Goncharova Eugene Onegin: a novel in verse 1825-1832 Innovative rhyme scheme o The Onegin stanza Man character, Eugene Onegin, a bored St. Petersburg dandy Becomes model of Russian Romantic hero, also of “superfluous man” Spurns love of Tatyana, kills her sister’s fiancé, Lensky, in duel, then falls in love, unsuccessfully, with Tatyana, now married “The Queen of Spades” (written 1833, published in 1834) Herman the German does not gamble (stereotypes!) Hears of Tomsky’s grandmother’s history with winning cars Woos her ward Liza, frightens Countess to death She gets her revenge by ruining him, he goes mad Pushkin claimed that all over St. Petersburg, rich young men were gambling three, seven, ace Interpretations o Ghost story o Occult tendencies o Social commentary o Oedipal underpinnings Mikhail Lermontov, 1814-1841 As teenager recited Pushkin’s poetry Poem after Pushkin’s death led to his own exile Sent twice to Caucasus for active military service Wealthy grandmother pulls strings and he’s allowed to go back to St. Petersburg In several duels; last one killed him at age 27 Prose and poems Very self-centered Melancholy Intent on freedom A Hero of Our Time o Written 1837-1840 o Made up of 5 stories, with central character Pechorin o Variety of stories: travel accounts, romantic adventures, society tales o Pechorin as self-portrait of Lermontov himself: anti-social, individualistic, contemptuous of social mores, self-absorbed o Pechorin is often seen as the heir to Pushkin’s Evgenii Onegin, the superfluous man o Set down in Caucasus with bandits, adventurers, beautiful women, and treacherous comrades o One of great Romantic heroes of modern literature “Taman”: one chapter of A Hero of Our Time Romanticism in Russia Reaches its height in Russia in 1820s with appearance of Byron and Byronism Byron a British writer associated with swashbuckling brigands performing heroic feats The Byronic hero: a defiant, melancholy young man, brooding on some mysterious, unforgivable sin in his past; against society Seen as the quintessential Romantic Like European Romanticism, Russians focus on escapism and rebellion, social protest and individual isolation, exotic milieus and noble savages, death, sadness, murder At the same time, specifically Russian: adapted to Russian milieu Rechorin and Onegin seen as experiencing a uniquely Russian sort of boredom, that of the superfluous man Russ 280 Class 12 Birch tree is the nature equivalent of Pushkin Russian Nationalism in Music 1830-1900 Before 1830s o Mostly oral traditions o Folk music o Church music o No composed art or court music Not by Russian composers Courts heard imported music – Italian and French opera Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) o Nobleman o Trained in Italy and Germany o Russian language opera o 1836: Life for the Tsar (historical) Folk song Folk instruments (balalaika) o 1843: Ruslan und Ludmilla (fairy tale) Unusual harmonies, rhythms, meter to represent the mystical (Chernamor) Mighty Five (Moguchaya Kuchka) 1850s-70s o Balakirev o Cui o Mussorgsky o Borodin o Rimsky-Korsakov o Onstage: Russian History Mussorgysky, Boris Godunov (1874) Slava= Glory to the Tsar Borodin, Prince Igor (1869-1887) o Onstage: Russian Fairy Tales Rimsky-Korsakov, Snow Maiden (1880) Rimsky-Korsakov, The Golden Cockerel (1907) Rimsky-Korsakov, Sadko (1896) Instrumental Music: start a uniquely Russian style of music o Balakirev Overture on 3 Russian Themes (1859) Folk Songs turned into symphony Rus (1860) Tamar (1876) o Mussorgsky Night on Bald Mountain (1867) Pictures at an Exhibition (1874 pno; 1922 orch. Ravel) o Rimsky-Korsakov Russian Easter Overture (1887) Caprice Espanole (1887) Sheherezade (1888) No formal training o All had jobs; wrote music in their spare time o All gathered at Balakirev’s apartments o Studies Western music (Beethoven, Schubert, Liszt, Wagner) o Russian Musical Society o To perform and play their music o 1870s Balakirev has a breakdown; Mussorgsky, too (1874) Mighty 5 dissolves Aton Rubenstein 1829-1894 Russian pianist – German descent Resists the Mighty 5 Folk traditions were ‘uncivilized’ and ‘uncultured’ 1862: Establishes St. Petersburg Conservatory (Tsarina helps) Train Russian composers Western compositional forms, styles Among first graduates – Chaikovsky 1866: Establishes Moscow COnsevatory Chaikovsky teaches Peter I. Chaikovsky 1840-1893 Studies Law – starts career in civil service o Stops and pursues music Studies at new St. Petersburg Conservatory 1866: teaches at new Moscow Conservatory Internationalist works o Symphonic poems Romeo & Juliet (1869) Manfred (1885) Hamlet (1888) o Symphonies Symphony Nol. (1866) Symphony No. 2 (1873)- “The Little Russian” Symphony No. 3 (1875) Symphony No. 4 (1878)- folk tune 4 mvt Symphony No. 5 (1888) Symphony No 6 (1893)- Pathetique Nationalism – Opera o 1878 – Eugene Onegin Story by Pushkin; contemporary Russian society Personal tragedy for Chaikovsky Marries former student Antonia Milyukova Has breakdown Flees to Europe Divorce/scandal o 1890 – Queen of Spades Story by Pushkin Nationalism – Ballet o Swan Lake (1876) o Sleeping Beauty (1888) o The Nutcracker (1897) 1878 – Mystery Patron o 14 years of support and money o Contact through letters only 1891 – Patron stops abruptly o Depression o Doesn’t compose 1893 – Symphony No. 6 “Pathetique” o Mysterious circumstances? Natalia (Nadezhda) von Meck=secret patron Russian Nationalism continues o Stravinksy The Firebird (1910) Petrushka (1911) The Rite of Spring (1913)