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MCB Notes Week #2

by: Andres Leos

MCB Notes Week #2 Biol 3314

Andres Leos
Molecular cell biology
German Rosas Acosta

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About this Document

This is a continuation of the weekly notes that I'll post at the end of each week. It is a summary of the information that I thought was most important given to us this week.
Molecular cell biology
German Rosas Acosta
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andres Leos on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3314 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by German Rosas Acosta in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Molecular cell biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/06/15
MCB Notes Week 2 DNA length 6ft 2 meters Euchromatin ready for transcription Heterochromatin more tightly packed not ready for transcription Human genome 64 billion base pairs nucleotides Amoeba DubiaProtozoan kingdom largest genome GeneSegment of DNA that yields a functional product Fragment of DNA transcribed into mRNA later translated into protein DNA also transcribed into rRNA tRNA snRNPRNA miRNA ntron DNA incorporated by primary transcripts but later eliminated by splicing Only exons remain which only make up 10 of the original transcript Typical human gene 9 exons 8 introns RetrotransposonDNA sequences that are transcribed into RNA recognized by reverse transcriptase back to DNA Leads to integration into chromosomal DNA 3 types of Retrotransposons SINES LINES and Retroviruses All three are heavily methylated to keep silenced and fully packed into heterochromatin Movie 2 Notes Origin of Replication ORI sequence serve as binding sites for proteins which begin the process of replication Origin Recognition ComplexORC required for the initiation of DNA replication and recruits proteins such as MCM helicase to origin and initiates replication MCM helicase opens up DNA and forms quotdoughnutquot on one strand of DNA A second MCM helicase is needed for the second strand of DNA The MCM helicase needs to be phosphorylated in order for it to be active Single stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein Ahep separate DNA strands in replication and prevent DNA from reforming DNA double helix Primase in 5 t03 direction along with DNA polymerase alpha produce strand of RNADNA hybrid Clamp Loading protein Replication Factor C use energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to open sliding clamps which are the PCNA in eukaryotes and load polymerase onto the primer The clamp loading protein releases sliding clamp proteins and forms a ring around the template DNA Once sliding clamp proteins are released they load DNA polymerase onto DNA at primer template junction RNA strand is eliminated in the lagging strand by RNaseH and the gap is then filled with DNA by DNA polymerase alpha DNA ligase fills small gaps between 3 and 5 by the formation of a phosphodiester bond Lecture 3 notes Highly condensed chromosomes very important during metaphase of mitosis Regulating DNA packaging regulation of gene expression Heterochromatin 2 types Constitutive always condensed Facultative not always condensed depends on cell and phase of cell cycle Karyotype patterns of stains unique to each 23 pairs of chromosomes Telomeres end of chromosomes that are there to protect Centromeres and teomeres do not encode for any genes Alternate splicing skipping particular exons when forming final transcript Must always be in 5 to 3 direction


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