Chapter 1 Continued
Chapter 1 Continued SPPA 210
Popular in PHONETICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Schurott on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPPA 210 at Towson University taught by Lisa Geary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see PHONETICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Towson University.
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Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Chapter 1 Continued IPA Broad Transcription indicated by slash marks Listing the phonemes of a word Example k is the rst sound of quotcatquot IPA narrow transcription indicated by brackets The actual pronunciation of a sound Example sop is the word quotsoapquot pronounced with a dentalized lisp Valid variation it must accurately represent how the word sounds Grapheme printed letter in English not IPA Example the sound f can be spelled quotphquot quotffquot or quotghquot Diagraph a pair of letters that represents one sound 2 letters 1 sound Example u sound of quotoequot in quotshoequot Allograph different letters or letter sequences that represent same sound Example f quotf ph ff ghquot Phoneme the smallest unit of sound in a language that has meaning Example s and t are phonemes quotsapquot is a different word than quottapquot Minimal pairs words that differ by only one phoneme Example quotsighquot and quottiequot quotmunchquot and quotlunchquot Phone a particular occurrence of a speech sound Aspirated and unreleased p Morpheme the smallest unit of language that carries a meaning on its own Example 2 is a phoneme and a morpheme when used in 200 Can indicate tense and person Free Morpheme morphemes that can stand alone and still carry meaning Example quotbeequot quotquick walkquot Bound Morphemes morphemes that only carry meaning when they are added to other morphemes Example quotbeezquot quotquicklyquot quotwalkingquot Distinctive features subphonemic pieces of information that help distinguish one phoneme from another Sonorant produced with a relatively open vocal tract Obstruent produced with marked constriction in the vocal tract Continuant produced without complete blockage of air ow in the vocal tracts Voice produced with vocal fold vibration Broad transcription phonemes of a word or a single sound are listed Example quotcoatquot kot Narrow transcription the actual sound production is described Example koth Diacritics special symbols used to indicate allophonic variation 0 Added to phonemes to give extra info about how sound is produced in that particular case Syllable basic unit of speech production generally consisting of a segment of greatest acoustic energy and segments of lesser energy Onset all the consonants that precede a vowel in a syllable 0 Example str in quotstrainedquot Rhyme a syllable segment consisting of an obligatory nucleus and an option coda 0 Example quotainedquot or end in quotstrainedquot o Nucleus part of a syllable with the greatest acoustic energy loudest usually a vowel Example quotaquot in quotactquot 0 Coda the consonants that follow a vowel Example quotctquot in quotactquot Open Syllables syllables that end with a vowel no coda 0 Example both syllables of quotbabyquot Closed Syllables syllables that end with a consonant 0 Example the rst syllable in quotdiamondquot is open and the second syllable is closed Phonotactic rules rules that govern the order in which phonemes may occur in a word Examples quotnchquot never begins a word but it can end a word as in quotlunchquot Word Stress a syllable produced with greater force or emphasis Stressed syllables are longer in duration higher pitch and louder 0 Primary stress the syllable with the greatest stress or emphasis 0 Secondary stress a syllable with less stress than the primary stress Can change the pronunciation of a word Can change the meaning or class of a word Finding stress of word 0 Stress the wrong syllable and see if it sounds strange
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