TXC 007: Week 6 Notes
TXC 007: Week 6 Notes TXC 007
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demi Chang on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXC 007 at University of California - Davis taught by Linda Matheson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Fashion and Cultural Studies in Textiles And Apparel at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
TXC 007: Fashion and Cultural Studies- Week 6 Notes Linda F. Matheson A. Race versus. Ethnicity: In relation to personal appearance, Ethnicity offers more opportunities to for agency and articulation. Both race and ethnicity are embedded in cultural discourses, but ethnic discourses seem to leave more flexibility for self-and-group expression (Chapter 4). ● Fluidity in Ethnic Articulation: Ethnic attire such as the Mexican sombrero and the Japanese kimono are often appropriated and worn by people of different ethnicities. This flexibility for self-expression is also seen in these following examples: 1. When Prince Charles wore a Scottish kilt as a British, it was an example of oppositional propriety”- most Scots do not wear the kilt unless it is for a formal occasion, let along a Brit. 2. Mindy Kaling, whose father is Tamil and mother is Bengali, is influenced by their Bostonian, Indian, and Nigerian culture; for Christmas dinner they have traditional American style cooking but with shrimp curry. 3. Frida Kahlo , an artist who expressed her indigenous, ethnic, and nationalistic identity through her clothing and art. ● Racial Issues in the Fashion World 1. Whiteness is mainstrea. 80% of the models at New York Fashion Week in the Spring 2014 season were white. Race remains an “unmarked narrative”, or as Andre Leon Talley states, “we’re supposed to be living in a non-racial world and we’re just not there”. 2. Good Hair. As demonstrated in Chris Rock’s documentary, the African American community often spends tens of thousands of dollars to straighten their hair in order to fit in with the Western perception of beauty. 3. Zoot Suit Riots:Considered one of the first riots caused by a piece of clothing, the riots spread around the U.S. during WWII when there were fabric shortages. Despite the limited fabric for any clothing production, young Hispanics who could not enlist in the war came out with this fabric-intensive suit that became a part of their identity. a. Army men found their suits unpatriotic and went after these kids. The government declared an end to the riots, causing the service men to leave, the Mexican ambassador to investigate, and the press to stop misrepresenting the Zoot Suit youth. 4. Beyonce’s “Formation” Music V.By standing on a New Orleans police car in a red-and-white Gucci high-collar dress and combat boots among the ruins of Hurricane Katrina, she reveals a complex commentary on over-policing and discrimination of African Americans. ● History on the Representation of Race : 1. British Imperialism/Colonia: Historically there has been cultural anxieties about miscegenation (mixture of “races”), constructions of white, virtuous femininity (identity not), and what remains “unmarked”. Race, here intersects with gender, sexuality, and class. a. In 1911, Ishi, the last member of the Yahi-Yana tribe, became a popular tourist attraction where visitors watched him make arrows and fires. Ralph Lauren launched an ad with his image on it to promote an “unmarked, authentic suit” but was quickly removed due to its cultural insensitivity. b. Jennifer Lopez was inspired by Selena, who was proud to have a large bottom. As Puerto Ricans/Latinos and women, their bodies were often objectified. B. Religious Articulation ● Religious articulations often include articulations betwHegemonic discourses that controls the body, and Individual agency(which involves subjectivity and the intersectionalities between religion and other identities). 1. Linda Arthur stated that religious groups "exert[ed] discourses that control members' bodies". Dress became a symbol of social control that displayed if one was on the "right and true path". a. For example, if a Mennonite puts on dress, she is metaphorically putting on the religion’s ideals of conservativeness and submission. b. Recent headlines of “fashion vs. faith” became a media hit due to the hair of the women in the polygamy court case. The focus became less on the case and more on the women’s fashion and hair style. c. Kimberly Hamme’s Amish clothing line, Plainly Dressed demonstrates how religion can play into the Style-Fashion-Dress model and shape subject formation. As Hamme said, “we wanted to be a plain people’s walmart online”. C. Social Class ● The Definitions of Social Clas: 1. A roup sharing the same economic or social status/rank. (Webster’s). 2. Implies a hierarchy or grades and ranks within society. This term was transfoKarl by Marx from a “neutral” concept to one of critique; class ideology is relational and the different values compete. 3. “Class happens” by E.P. Thomas. “the class relations are fluid, that they develop and transform over time, and that they carry in them the residue of earlier social, cultural, and class relations, cannot be stressed too strongly”. (Wolfreys). ● The Definitions of Class” (of cultural discourse): 1. Stylish and elegant. 2. Not crude, disgusting, dirty, or depressing. 3. A deeper, more meaningful for ‘cool’ . Examples include a Mercedes Benz or Audrey Hepburn. ● The Definitions of Classi: 1. Traditional and enduring. 2. Simple tailored lines. 3. Recognized value, standard of excellence. For example, Marlboro Classics is advertised as “inspired by the value of man and nature, of authenticity and uniqueness”, while Valentino uses similar wording as well. ● Class in the United States:People most often identify with the middle class regardless of what class they really are. 1. Images representing c: Historically, the top hat was symbolic of upper class while the dirt on face represented the working man of the lower class. Today, it is often hard to tell which class someone is in. 2. StatisticFrom 1971 to 2015, the upper class has grown significantly larger while the middle class has become significantly smaller. Additionally the wealth disparity in the U.S. surpasses other countries; the richest 1% in the U.S. owns 37.1% of private wealth within the country, compared to only 23% in Germany. 3. “How Does TV Shape the Image of the Working Class?” Video: a. Class is based on: I. Economic (financial income) value II. Political (one’s power over the public) value III. Cultural (taste, lifestyle, education) value b. Disconnect within the working classWhile 62% of the people in the U.S. are working class , they are still stigmatized and and often do not have class consciousness (where people know themselves and share common experiences with people within their class). However, the working class does not share common experiences because it is segmented by race and gender. c. Working class” is a taboo in society- instead people focus on the middle . Ass politicians such as Bush have stated, avoiding the topic of working class allows us to avoid“class warfare”. d.On TV, the pursuit of consumer lifestyle is seen as the way to achieve a higher economic class.For example, “The Goldbergs” demonstrated the objects you needed to buy in order to access suburban american dream. In “Amos n’ Andy”, buying a new dining table was a way of attaining a higher intellectual level and class. It allowed people who were not Caucasian to appear less “ethnic” and more conformative to the suburban lifestyle. e.Disappearing idea of classThe idea of class somewhat disappeared due to: 1. Unions, collective bargaining, and supporting government programs 2. Rebellions by unions that were viewed as Communism that had to be crushed. f.African Americans and other minority racial groups often had to enter the TV industry by conforming to american “rules”They would talk about moving up the in class, but it talks nothing about these group’s true economic hardships in real life. For example, in “The Cosby Show”, they erased the real struggles of black people, and convinced their audience that if you work hard , you can achieve any economic or social class- and consequently, you don’t need help from the state as a minority group. Shows that dos how the true struggles of African Americans like “Roc”- but they weren’t promoted. g.In reality, women in the working class are often single mothers who often have higher poverty- yet working class single mothers are not accurately represented on TVHowever, “Roseanne” is the best working class female mother show, despite the fact that Roseanne was often skewered by the media in order to fight other people who didn’t like its feminist tone. h.Often workers inadequacies are blamed for their lack of upper claThe flaws of the working class include: 1. Taste/lifestyle (i.e., slobs drinking beer), as if they’re completely clueless of the upper class. Often change in this lifestyle can only occur with a physical makeover. 2. Lack of intelligence, where men are often incapable of taking control of household and women then take on the role of intelligence in this reverse gender dynamic.
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