Week one notes for Tue. AND Thur.
Week one notes for Tue. AND Thur. PHYS 215
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fry on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 215 at Ball State University taught by Zamlauski-Tucker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
PHYS 215 notes week 2 83115 0 Plasma Membrane 0 Components Lipid fat Protein Cholesterol every cell needs it we just consume too much Sugar coated o Lipids 0 Both hydrophobic afraid of water and hydrophilic water loving o Phospholipid bilayer Hydrophilic head groups and hydrophobic tail groups line up 1 Membrane proteins 0 Can think of the plasma membrane as a sea of proteins and lipids o Integral proteins penetrate the membrane 0 Peripheral proteins sit on top boat on water 0 Duties Channels Carriers Docking proteins Enzymes Receptors Adhesion molecules Selfidenti cation o A need for Channels 0 Water bipolar 02 with a net negative charge and hydrogen with a net positive charge this is what makes water a good solvent 0 lons charged particles Cations positively charged Anions negatively charged When a salt dissolves into water it separates into its cation and anion components Ex NaClgt Na Cl 0 Bilayers are impermeable to ions so proteins that allow the movement of ions are necessary 0 Calcium channels are made up of proteins that interact to form a tunnel through the membrane that allows the transport of calcium 0 Movement of ions across membranes 0 Diffusion the movement of an ion down its electricalchemical gradient Ficks Law of Diffusion Dependenton Concentration gradient students Membrane permeability doors Surface area how big the student is Molecular weight size Membrane thickness hallway distance and how wide 0 Pumps movement of ions against the concentration gradient through the use of ATP Carriers trip to FL on plane 0 Speci city can only bind to a certain enzyme humans 0 Saturation limited number of carriers on membrane once all are bound saturation is reached how many seats are on plane 0 Competition a ght for enzymes to get to the membrane students ghting for plane seat Types of carrier Transport 0 Active transport use of ATP pumps 0 Passive transport use of electricalchemical gradient Facilitated di usion use gradient to move a molecule via a carrier across a membrane Cotransport use the gradient of one molecule to move another ex Na and glucose Docking proteins SNARE PROTEINS Soluble NSF Nethyl maleimide Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptors play a role in exocytosis release of material from cells 0 Two types VSNARES VAMP TSNARES Syntaxin SNAP 25 in neurons bonus Enzymes examples cutting clipping or adding 0 Kinases adder add phosphate groups phosphorylation o Phospholipases clipper convert phospholipids to fatty acids and other products 0 Acetylcholinesterase cutter can associate with plasma membrane breaks down Ach Membrane Receptors o Bind chemical messengers 0 Receptor may Activate a channel Receptors may be an enzyme Receptors may activate a second messenger pathway we will discuss this later Cell to Cell Adhesions o Extracellular matrix Collagen Provide resistance to longitudinal stress 1 Scurvy vitamin C Elastin Involved in stretching and recoiling ExLungs Fibronectin Promotes cell adhesion 0 Cell adhesions molecules CAMS Form loops or hooks that cells use to grip each other Ex Cadherins interlock cells like a zipper lntegrins link the cell s extracellular matrix with the external environment and internal components 0 Cell junctions Desmosomes Anchor 2 nontouching cells Plaque Glycoprotein lament Epithelial skin cell cardiac muscle uterus Tight junctions Direct interacting plasma membranes Epithelial sheets Digestive tract why Gap junctions Direct link between adjacent plasma membranes 0 Cardiac and smooth muscle Types of Synapses 0 Electrical gap junction 0 Chemical release neurotransmitters Gap junctions o Directly link to the interior of adjacent cells 0 Connexons hexagonal tubes which form aqueous pores roughly 2 nm 10 quot9 in diameter between the two cells 6 connexin molecules from a connexon 0 Alignment of connexons results in the formation of the pores which form the gap junction SelfRecognition 0 Sugar chains on the outer membrane surface 0 Each cell type has its own carbohydrate chain pattern Molarity and Osmolarity o Molarity number of moles per liter of solution 150 mM NaCl means 150 millimoles of NaCl per liter of solution 0 Osmolarity number of moles of particles in solution 150 mM NaCl is 300 mOsM or 300 moles of particles per liter of solution 0 150 millimoles of Na 150 millimole of Cl 0 What if it was CaCl2 Tonicity o Hypertonic higher concentration outside than inside water wants to move out of the cell 0 lsotonic equal concentration of particles outside and inside o Hypotonic lower concentration outside than inside water wants to move into the cell Membrane potential Vm the voltage across a membrane at any given time o Determined by the amount of positively and negatively charged particles inside and outside of the cell 0 Neurons have an unequal distribution of charge across the membrane and are negatively charged with respect to the outside Inside cell main cation is K outside is Na inside cell at rest is 70 Vm Na wants to go inside k wants to stay in the cell CI wants to stay outside of cell Main anion is protein in cell Nernst Equation 0 Eion 2303RTzF log ion outionSin 0 At body temperature 37 degrees C or 986 degrees F with single valence cations o 2303RTzF 6154 mV 0 Or for single valence anions o 2303 RT2F 6154 mV Equilibrium Potentials for Ions ECF ICF o Na 60 mV 150 mM 15 mM 0 K 90 mV 5mM 150 mM 0 CI 70 mV 125 mM 10 mM 0 A 0 mM 65 mM Membrane potential Maintained by Pumps 0 NaK pump maintain sodium outside of the cell and pumps potassium into the cell 3 Na2 K 0 Calcium pump pumps calcium outside of the cell Secondary mechanisms for eliminating calcium 0 Protein binding 0 Uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum Goldman Equation permeability equation 0 If a membrane is permeable to a number of ions the combined effect of these on the diffusion potential depends on the following factors The Polarity or of the electrical charge on each ion The Permeability P of the membrane to each ion The Concentration of the respective ions on the inside i and outside 0 of the membrane PM Ii P Na PG ClO Na Vm 56154 log PK Ko PNa Nao PClICI39l Potassium channels 0 Potassium channels are the most diverse group of the ion channel family They 1 Shape the action potential 2 Are involved in neuronal excitability and 3 Plasticity the ability of the brain to shape or mold itself by expansion or contraction or neuronal processes 0 The potassium channel family is composed of several functionally distinct isoforms which can be broadly separated into 2 groups 1 Practically noninactivating 39delayed group 2 rapidly inactivating 39transient group Round 2 0 Signal Transduction o Extracellular messenger binds to a receptor triggering an intracellular response Activation of ion channels Activation of second messengers 1 Types of Channels 0 Leak channels always open 0 Gated channels Voltage gated Chemical messenger Mechanoreceptor ex Stretch o Gprotein coupled receptors 0 1 Chemical messenger binds to the receptor 0 2 Receptos activate Gproteins which can move and interact with other membrane proteins 0 3 Activated Gproteins activate effector proteins 0 Actions of Gprotein Recceptors 0 Second messengers Low molecular weight compounds cAMP amp Ca2 Transmit the biological signals initiated by receptorligand binding at the cell surface to intracellular targets 0 Can activate additional enzymes ion channels and can alter cellular metabolism metabotropic receptors 1 cAMP Pathway o extracellular messenger binds to Gprotein linked receptor 0 Alpha subunit is released 0 Adenylyl cyclase is activated 0 ATP is converted to cAMP 0 Protein Phosphorylation o cAMP activates protein kinase A 0 protein kinase A utilizes ATP to add a P to the protein 0 the protein may change shape become activated become deactivated 0 Calcium Pathway 0 Chemical messenger binds the Gprotein linked receptor 0 Alpha subunit is released and activates PLC o PLC breaks down lipid tails PP2 into DAG and IP3 o IP3 and Calcium Release IP3 releases calcium from intracellular stores Calcium concentration increases in the cytosol Calcium binds calmodulin Calmodulin then may activate or deactivate a given protein OOOO PHYS 215 Notes 82415 Smallest living thing is a cell 0 Many different types of cells in the body to accommodate tissues and organs 0 Put different organs to create a system digestive A cell is bound by the plasma membrane cell membrane 0 Inside cytoplasm and organees Single ceed organisms include amoeba bacteria and yeast etc Multicellular organisms plant animals humans Started out as a single cell 0 Differentiation cells divide and become specialized 0 Beginning cell stem cell One set of genes gets turned on and other gets turned off differentiate 0 Red blood cell no nucleus and no organees when mature Basic Cell Functions 0 Obtain food and oxygen Utilize nutrients and oxygen to generate energy Eliminate byproducts and waste Synthesize proteins Control exchange of materials what comes in and out Move materials within the cell Respond to environment changes 0 Undergo ce divisionreproduction most not all Specialized Function examples 0 Body part role in body 0 Intestinaltrackabsorption o Pancreas and stomachdigestion o Kidney reabsorption secretion send something out excretion remove from body 0 Muscles contraction o Neurons neurotransmission neuron 1 sends to Neuron 2 Levels of organizationtissues 0 Cells of similar structure and specialized function to form tissues 0 4 primary tissues OOOOOO Muscle Nervous Ep heHal Connchve Muscle Tissue 0 There are I types of muscle tissue Skeletal moves the skeleton Cardiac pumps blood from the heart Smooth controls movement of contents through hollow tubes and organs Nervous tissue consists of cells specialized for initiating and transmitting electrical impulses 0 Electrical impulses act as signals that are important in communication coordination and control in the body Epithelial tissue consists of cells specialized for exchanging materials between the cell and its environment 0 Any substance that enters or leaves the body must cross an epithelial bar er o Epithelial tissue is organized into I types of structures Epithelial sheets Secretory glands Glands derived from epithelial tissue and specialized for secretion Exocrine glands secrete through ducts to the body surface or into a cavity that communicates with the outside Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood Connective tissue connects supports and anchors various body parts 0 Loose connective tissue attacches epithelial tissue to underlying structures 0 Tendons attach muscles to bones 0 Bone gives the body shape support marrow makes blood cells 0 Blood transports materials Organs composed of 2 or more types of primary tissue 0 Stomach 4 tissues make it up Epithelial protection secretion and absorption Connective structural support Muscle movement Nervous communication coordination control 0 Body Systems 0 Digestive Circulatory Respiratory Urinary Skeletal Muscular lntegumentary skin Immune Nervous Endocnne 0 Reproductive 0 Cellular compartments 0 ICF intracellular uid inside cell 0 ECF extracellular uid Plasma blood without cells Interstitial uid uid in tissues between cells 0 Homeostasis o Maintaining a stable internal environment Dynamic continuously being adjusted Ex Temperature OOOOOOOOO 0 Too hot sweat 0 Too cold shiver Disruptions can lead to death 0 Regulating Homeostasis 0 00000 0 Concentration of nutrients Concentration of 02 and C02 Concentration of waste products pH changes concentration of H20 salt and electrolytes temperature volume and pressure 0 Contributions of body systems to homeostasis o Circulatory heart blood vessel and blood Transports materials from one part of the body to another Heart pumps blood vessels contract to keep blood moving and blood carries 02 to organs and systems in body Digestive System mouth esophagus stomach intestines and related organs Breaks down food into small nutrient molecules that can be absorbed 0 Food substances are nutrients proteins and fats Respiratory Obtains 02 and eliminates C02 Maintains pH Urinary Reabsorbs nutrients Balances electrolytes Eliminates wastes Maintains proper pH Skeletal bones and joints Provides support and protection for soft tissues and organs Enables the body and its parts to move Serves as a storage reservoir for calcium Bone marrow is the source of all blood cells Muscular skeletal muscles Moves bones attached to skeletal muscles Voluntary movements range from ne motor skills to powerful movements Generates heart maintains body temperature lntegumentary skin Protects against microorganisms Regulates temperature secrete sweat Immune White blood cells and lymphoid organs Defends against foreign invaders and helps in replacing injured or wornout cells 0 Nervous Controls and coordinates body activities 0 Endocrine Secretes hormones into the body 0 Reproductive Perpetuation of the species 0 not necessary for homeostasis o Homeostasis Control 0 Intrinsic controls built in o Extrinsic Outside of the organ 0 Nervous or endocrine systems 0 Negative Feedback 0 End product shut system off Ex Thermostat if heater and house is cold it turns on to heat the house until the temperature is at desired temp then turns off body does same thing 0 Most systems in the body are controlled by negative feedback 0 Positive Feedback 0 Increase in release Child birth and Oxytocin o Homeostasis Disruptions 0 Can result in illness or death 0 Pathophysiology Abnormal functioning of the body associated with disease 82615 Cellular Physiology 0 Plasma membrane 0 Separates the ECF from the ICF o Maintains the intracellular environment 0 Allows entry of food substances 0 The nucleus chromatin in the nucleusholds DNA 0 Large 0 Nuclear envelope 0 DNA 0 RNA mRNA messenger rRNA ribosomal tRNA transfer 0 From DNA to Protein 0 DNA recipe in French cook book 0 mRNA your mom who gave you the recipe 0 rRNA you reading the recipe o tRNA your little sister who puts the ingredients together whole you read 0 Protein the souf the recipe makes 0 The Cytoplasm o The area outside of the nucleus 0 Contains organelles little organs 6 main types ER protein synthesis Golgi apparatus protein synthesis and modi cation Lysosomes break down of material Peroxisomes detoxi cation Mitochondria ATP production Vaults cell traf cking Other organelles secretory granules or vesicles 0 ER Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Rough ER dotted with ribosomes 0 Smooth ER lack of ribosomes When looked at under a microscope appearance may be different 0 Rough ER 0 Major site of protein and lipid synthesis Generally translates membrane proteins 0 Free ribosomes Second site of protein synthesis Generally translate cytosolic proteins 0 Smooth ER 0 Can be continuous with the rough ER Central packing and discharge Buds off transport vesicles Abundant in steroid hormone secreting cells In liver contains enzymes for detoxi cation ln muscle cells quotsarcoplasmic reticulumquot Stores calcium Golgi Complex Looks like a frown 00000 0 Farthest from the nucleus 0 Receives transport vesicles 0 Processing raw materials into nished products 0 Sorting and directing the nished products 0 Production of secretory vesicles Secretory Vesicles Synaptic Vesicles neuron o Bud off from the Golgi o Concentrate hormone or neurotransmitter 0 Release hormone or neurotransmitter at the plasma membrane Lysosomes stomach or garbage disposal 0 Contain hydrolytic enzymes cut water hydrolytic o Breakdown organic molecules Endocytosis o Phagocytosis pinocytosis receptormediated endocytosis o Vesicles budding off and coming into the cell 0 Could contain food or nutrients Peroxisomes Contain oxidative enzymes Produces hydrogen peroxide H202 then converts it to H20 and 02 Rids the body of toxic substances detoxi cation Breakdown fat 0 Not formed by Golgi self replicate Mitochondria stackedmost common get from mother 0 Power planthouse of the cell 0 Have their own DNA 0 Double membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane Cristae electron transport proteins 0 Matrix citric acid cycle enzymes Glycolysis in cytoplasm of cell anaerobic no 02 needed 0 Glucose is broken down into pyruvate 0 Some of the energy is used to convert ADP into ATP 2 molecules of NADH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide are also produced Pyruvate converted to acetyl CoA o Pyruvate enters the matrix 0 Acetic acid combines with Coenzyme A o Acetyl CoA then joins the citric acid cycle AKA Krebs Cycle Citric Acid Cycle 0 With our 2 acetyl CoA molecules we go around the cycle twice 0 Produce cycle goes 2x One cycle result total product 0000 I 1 ATP 2 I 3 NADH 6 I 1 FADH2 2 I 2 C02 4 o Altogether now 0 Glycolysis 2 pyruvate 2 ATP 2 NADH o 2 Pyruvates to 2 acetyl CoA 2 acetyl CoA 2 NADH 2 C02 0 Citric Acid Krebs Cycle 2 I 2 ATP I 6 NADH I 2 FADH2 I 4 C02 0 2 total can be made without 02 Citric Acid Cycle Cast in muscle if C02 doesn39t leave lactic acid builds up 0 Acetyl CoA meets Oxaloacetic acid 0 The OH group on citric acid changes position Isocitric acid loses a C02 group and H Alphaketoglutarate loses a C02 group and another H CoA is released from succinate Succinate releases 2 H Fumarate gains a H and an OH group Malate loses an H malate turns into Oxaloacetic acid right back to the beginning 0 The ETC Electron Transport Chain 0 NADH and FADH2 now are holding the Hydrogen o The Hydrogen is released at the inner membrane 0 High energy electrons are released from the Hydrogen forming H and e The e moves to lower energy levels Hydrogen moves back across the membrane This drives the conversion of ADP and Pi to ATP by ATP synthase 32 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose Oxygen also moves across the membrane and free H combines with 02 to form water 00000 0 o Aerobic vs Anaerobic o Aerobic requires 02 Citric acid cycle and electron transport chain 32 ATP 0 2 glycolysis 2 citric acid cycle 0 28 electron transport chain Anaerobic doesn39t require 02 Glycolysis 2 ATP Which cell in the body relies only on glycolysis RBC red blood cell Only Aerobic 30 ATP ln presence of 02 up to 32 ATP can be made In only Anaerobic 2 ATP 0 How do we use ATP 0 Synthesis of compounds 0 Membrane transport to transport against the gradient 0 Mechanical work Which is moving muscles In order to maintain muscle movement Vaults 0 These organelles are ribonucleoprotein complexes 0 Vault function is unknown May be involved in cell traf cking mRNA from the nucleus to ribosomes 0 Compounds for making ribosomes plays a role in tolerance to medication Cytosol o Gellike mass with a cytoskeleton o Gellike portion Enzymatic regulation of intermediary metabolism Ribosomal protein synthesis Storage of fat and glycogen Inclusions Droplets Clusters Cytoskeleton o Microtubules Tubulin Elongated shape neuron Secretory vesicle transport how Cilia and agellum sperm Mitotic spindle purpose 0 Micro laments Actin Myosin muscle 0 Intermediate laments structure Maintain cell structural integrity Neuro laments neurons 0 Lou Gehrig39s disease or ALS Keratin skin cells
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